Table 1

Descriptive statistics

VariableUnweighted observed dataWeighted imputed data
<6+ Mmonths6+ months% Missing<6+ months6+ months
UnemploymentUnemploymentUnemploymentUnemployment
n6589 (91.76%)592 (8.24%)6599.90 (88.03%)897.13 (11.97%)
GHQ-12 @ age 2511.53 (6)13.42 (7.59)4.46%11.71 (6.19)13.62 (7.65)*
Gender
 Male2799 (42.48%)317 (53.55%)0%3183.39 (48.23%)538.54 (60.03%)*
 Female3790 (57.52%)275 (46.45%)3416.51 (51.77%)358.59 (39.97%)
IMD22.56 (16.76)30.42 (18.13)8.78%22.18 (16.18)30.08 (18.26)*
Locus of Control0.05 (0.97)−0.51 (1.14)12.72%−0.05 (1.01)−0.64 (1.13)*
Current Economic Activity
 Employed5569 (85.19%)370 (62.93%)1.12%5499.25 (83.32%)521.59 (58.14%)*
 Education307 (4.7%)11 (1.87%)271.68 (4.12%)12.64 (1.41%)
 Inactive402 (6.15%)92 (15.65%)523.71 (7.94%)182.18 (20.31%)
 Unemployed259 (3.96%)115 (19.56%)305.25 (4.63%)180.73 (20.15%)
GHQ-12 @ age 14/151.74 (2.53)2.06 (2.76)13.16%1.76 (2.58)2.1 (2.72)*
GHQ-12 @ age 16/1710.5 (5.92)10.29 (6.48)20.85%10.34 (5.98)10.3 (6.53)
Self-rated health @ age 14/15
 Very good2576 (45.54%)166 (34.51%)15.22%2902.29 (43.97%)306.18 (34.13%)*
 Fairly good2903 (51.32%)288 (59.88%)3401.69 (51.54%)520.99 (58.07%)
 Not very good150 (2.65%)21 (4.37%)238.64 (3.62%)58.41 (6.51%)
 Not good at all28 (0.49%)6 (1.25%)57.27 (0.87%)11.55 (1.29%)
Self-rated health @ age 16/17
 Very good2922 (51.97%)215 (43.26%)15.67%3315.12 (50.23%)384.90 (42.9%)*
 Fairly good2308 (41.05%)246 (49.5%)2736.67 (41.47%)440.17 (49.06%)
 Not very good329 (5.85%)29 (5.84%)440.10 (6.67%)57.85 (6.45%)
 Not good at all63 (1.12%)7 (1.41%)108.00 (1.64%)14.21 (1.58%)
Disabled
 No5619 (87.7%)466 (80.48%)2.76%5633.49 (85.36%)701.73 (78.22%)*
 Yes, school not affected476 (7.43%)47 (8.12%)556.52 (8.43%)74.86 (8.34%)
 Yes, school affected312 (4.87%)66 (11.4%)409.89 (6.21%)120.54 (13.44%)
Risk behaviours0.76 (1.31)1.18 (1.65)12.24%0.96 (1.5)1.47 (1.84)*
Attitude to school33.49 (7.19)30.1 (8.02)10.72%32.28 (7.72)28.33 (8.26)*
# Waves bullied, 1–31.34 (1.15)1.61 (1.15)15.47%1.47 (1.15)1.72 (1.13)*
Qualifications
 NVQ 51167 (17.71%)19 (3.21%)0%927.05 (14.05%)16.90 (1.88%)*
 NVQ 41846 (28.02%)57 (9.63%)1611.71 (24.42%)65.08 (7.25%)
 NVQ 31355 (20.56%)72 (12.16%)1147.44 (17.39%)70.78 (7.89%)
 NVQ 21350 (20.49%)189 (31.93%)1613.46 (24.45%)252.11 (28.1%)
 NVQ 1497 (7.54%)165 (27.87%)815.63 (12.36%)338.13 (37.69%)
 No/other qual374 (5.68%)90 (15.2%)484.60 (7.34%)154.14 (17.18%)
Parental NS-SEC
 Higher2393 (41.27%)117 (22.72%)12.33%2503.64 (37.93%)169.41 (18.88%)*
 Intermediate1208 (20.83%)87 (16.89%)1393.86 (21.12%)127.20 (14.18%)
 Routine1889 (32.58%)259 (50.29%)2363.27 (35.81%)516.22 (57.54%)
 Long-Term Unemployed308 (5.31%)52 (10.1%)339.13 (5.14%)84.30 (9.4%)
Parental education
 Degree1080 (19.44%)52 (10.28%)15.71%1098.52 (16.64%)67.68 (7.54%)*
 Other Higher Education939 (16.9%)64 (12.65%)1042.91 (15.8%)91.76 (10.23%)
 A-level973 (17.51%)77 (15.22%)1141.75 (17.3%)128.93 (14.37%)
 GCSE A-C1381 (24.86%)128 (25.3%)1844.99 (27.95%)258.99 (28.87%)
 Other/none1183 (21.29%)185 (36.56%)1471.73 (22.3%)349.78 (38.99%)
Ethnicity
 White4498 (68.27%)412 (69.59%)0%5580.25 (84.55%)776.50 (86.55%)*
 Mixed298 (4.52%)30 (5.07%)165.52 (2.51%)23.70 (2.64%)
 Indian439 (6.66%)15 (2.53%)146.52 (2.22%)8.73 (0.97%)
 Pakistani354 (5.37%)38 (6.42%)158.68 (2.4%)21.96 (2.45%)
 Bangladeshi289 (4.39%)41 (6.93%)76.53 (1.16%)12.84 (1.43%)
 Black African197 (2.99%)28 (4.73%)95.29 (1.44%)26.65 (2.97%)
 Black Caribbean278 (4.22%)12 (2.03%)162.33 (2.46%)10.42 (1.16%)
 Other236 (3.58%)16 (2.7%)214.77 (3.25%)16.34 (1.82%)
Financial difficulties
 Managing well3407 (53.28%)203 (35.74%)4%3336.00 (51.37%)272.56 (31.38%)*
 Getting by2622 (41%)309 (54.4%)2791.23 (42.98%)517.32 (59.55%)
 Having difficulties366 (5.72%)56 (9.86%)367.05 (5.65%)78.83 (9.07%)
# Household children
 11428 (22.03%)139 (24.13%)2.6%1494.96 (23.02%)237.04 (27.29%)*
 22811 (43.36%)210 (36.46%)2857.47 (44%)312.58 (35.98%)
 31423 (21.95%)132 (22.92%)1399.61 (21.55%)196.44 (22.61%)
 4576 (8.88%)47 (8.16%)557.35 (8.58%)66.61 (7.67%)
 5+245 (3.78%)48 (8.33%)184.88 (2.85%)56.04 (6.45%)
Household type
 Two parent5202 (80.12%)396 (68.39%)2.4%4821.42 (74.24%)514.38 (59.21%)*
 Single parent1291 (19.88%)183 (31.61%)1672.87 (25.76%)354.33 (40.79%)
  • *P<0.05 from Meng and Rubin50 likelihood ratio test.

  • GCSE, General Certificate of Secondary Education; GHQ, General Health Questionnaire; IMD, Index of Multiple Deprivation; NS-SEC, National Statistics Socio-Economic Classification; NVQ, National Vocational Qualification.