Table 1

Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of all study participants and for overall dissatisfaction, n (%) or mean (SD)

Socio-demographic and clinical characteristicsAll (n=401)Dissatisfied* (n=113)
Socio-demographic characteristics
Age (years), mean (SD)29.8 (4.7)29.8 (4.7)
Mother’s region of birth (GBD), n (%)
 Central Europe, Eastern Europe and Central Asia132 (32.9)37 (32.7)
 Latin America and Caribbean13 (3.2)7 (6.2)
 North Africa and Middle East76 (19.0)24 (21.2)
 South Asia81 (20.2)21 (18.6)
 Southeast Asia, East Asia and Oceania37 (9.2)8 (7.1)
 Sub-Saharan Africa62 (15.5)16 (14.2)
Partner’s region of birth (GBD), n (%)†
 Central Europe, Eastern Europe and Central Asia123 (30.7)30 (26.5)
 High-income countries65 (16.2)28 (24.8)
 Latin America and Caribbean1 (0.2)1 (0.9)
 North Africa and Middle East74 (18.5)20 (17.7)
 South Asia68 (17.0)18 (15.9)
 Southeast Asia, East Asia and Oceania15 (3.7)3 (2.7)
 Sub-Saharan Africa54 (13.5)12 (10.6)
Partner Norwegian, n (%)
 Yes54 (13.5)22 (19.5)
No347 (86.5)91 (80.5)
Length of residency (months), mean (SD)35.6 (19.4)38.3 (18.1)
Education, n (%)
 No completed education16 (4.0)6 (5.3)
 Primary/secondary school151 (37.7)27 (23.9)
 University234 (58.4)80 (70.8)
Marital status, n (%)
 Single/divorced21 (5.2)5 (4.4)
 Cohabitant/married380 (94.8)108 (95.6)
Economic status, n (%)
 Very low–low19 (4.7)8 (7.1)
 Low–moderate60 (15.0)21 (18.6)
 High313 (78.1)82 (72.6)
 Unknown9 (2.2)2 (1.8)
Employment status, n (%)
 Employed228 (56.9)69 (61.1)
 Unemployed173 (43.1)44 (38.9)
Reason for migration, n (%)
 Refugee41 (10.2)12 (10.6)
 Family reunification183 (45.6)51 (45.1)
 Work/education177 (44.1)50 (44.2)
Norwegian comprehension, n (%)
 None69 (17.2)20 (17.7)
 With difficulties149 (37.2)39 (34.5)
 Good158 (39.4)40 (35.4)
 Fluently25 (6.2)14 (12.4)
Clinical characteristics
BMI, mean (SD)23.2 (4.0)23.3 (4.1)
Number of children, mean (SD)1.6 (0.8)1.6 (0.8)
GA first antenatal visit, mean (SD)9.5 (4.5)9.5 (4.5)
Care received by‡, n (%)
 General practitioner328 (81.8)94 (83.2)
 Midwife331 (83.0)96 (85.7)
 Obstetrician114 (28.4)32 (28.3)
Parity, n (%)
 Primiparous229 (57.1)74 (65.5)
 Multiparous172 (42.9)39 (34.5)
Evaluation of own health, n (%)
 Good363 (90.5)104 (92.0)
 Neither good nor bad33 (8.2)7 (6.2)
 Bad5 (1.2)2 (1.8)
Comorbidity, n (%)
 Yes79 (19.7)17 (15.0)
 No322 (80.3)96 (85.0)
Pregnancy complication, n (%)
 Yes213 (53.1)69 (61.1)
 No187 (46.6)44 (38.9)
Obstetric interventions, n (%)
 Induction97 (24.2)33 (29.2)
 Vacuum52 (13.0)18 (15.9)
 Caesarean section72 (18.0)22 (19.5)
 Episiotomy91 (22.7)27 (23.9)
 Epidural242 (60.3)70 (61.9)
 Pudendal21 (5.2)9 (8.0)
Complications during birth, n (%)
 Postpartum haemorrhage19 (4.7)7 (22.6)
 Transfer to NICU27 (6.7)8 (25.8)
 Antibiotic treatment55 (13.7)16 (51.6)
Planned pregnancy, n (%)
 Yes300 (74.8)78 (69.0)
 No101 (25.2)35 (31.0)
  • *Percentages are column percentages.

  • †One missing.

  • ‡More than one healthcare provider possible.

  • .BMI, Body mass index; GA, Gestational age ; GBD, Global Burden of Disease; NICU, Neonatal intensive care unit.