Table 2

Comparison of sociodemographic data by the presence of social isolation

N (%) in each LSNS groupGroup difference
LSNS <12LSNS ≥12χ2P valueCramer’s V or φ
Overall6337(55.9)4996(44.1)
Sex147.47<0.0010.114
 Male3335(61.9)2056(38.1)
 Female3002(50.5)2940(49.5)
Age (years)118.12<0.0010.102
 18–391950(50.2)1938(49.8)*
 40–643654(60.7)2370(39.3)*
 ≥65733(51.6)688(48.4)*
Occupation161.82<0.0010.119
 Employed4369(56.9)3316(43.1)*
 Homemaker866(48.0)940(52.0)*
 Student155(38.1)252(61.9)*
 Unemployed713(66.8)355(33.2)*
 Other234(63.8)133(36.2)*
Marital status167.91<0.0010.122
 Married3606(51.2)3437(48.8)
 Unmarried2731(63.7)1559(36.3)
The presence of child219.18<0.0010.139
 Yes3005(49.5)3067(50.5)
 No3332(63.3)1929(36.7)
Annual household income (JPY)189.48<0.0010.150
 <2.0 million466(73.6)167(26.4)*
 2.0–3.9 million1253(63.0)737(37.0)*
 4.0–5.9 million1278(57.7)936(42.3)
 6.0–7.9 million788(52.7)707(47.3)*
 ≥8.0 million1012(47.5)1118(52.5)*
Treatment of severe current physical diseases5.270.0220.022
 Yes294(61.0)188(39.0)
 No6043(55.7)4808(44.3)
Treatment of severe previous physical diseases1.350.2460.011
 Yes492(57.8)359(42.2)
 No5845(55.8)4637(44.2)
Treatment of current psychological problems53.83<0.0010.069
 Yes448(69.8)194(30.2)
 No5889(55.1)4802(44.9)
Treatment of previous psychological problems62.63<0.0010.074
 Yes900(65.9)466(34.1)
 No5437(54.6)4530(45.4)
  • Cramer’s V (or φ): 0.100~small; 0.300~medium; 0.600~large.

  • *Significant group difference found by residual analysis (absolute value of adjusted residual ≥1.96).

  • LSNS-6, Lubben Social Network Scale.