Table 2

The OPAS-C

NoItemDomain
1I am having trouble relaxing because of the virus.Stress
2I cannot control worrying about the virus.Stress
3I think about the virus more than I would like.Stress
4Thoughts of the virus pop into my head even when I do not want them to.Stress
5I have trouble concentrating because I think about the virus so much.Stress
6I check the news or online sources for updates on the virus more than I would like.Stress
7I am having trouble sleeping because I am thinking about the virus.Stress
8I am afraid of getting the virus myself.Fear
9I am afraid of a family member getting the virus.Fear
10I feel isolated from other people in the pandemic.Loneliness
11With the pandemic, I feel like I cannot connect to other people.Loneliness
12I feel close to other people.Community
13I feel part of a larger community of people.Community
14I think the pandemic is a hoax.Exaggerated
15I think people are getting too excited about the pandemic.Exaggerated
16I am wearing a face covering or mask when I am around people.NPIs
17I am social distancing.NPIs
18I am washing my hands frequently.NPIs
19I would take the coronavirus vaccine when it becomes available.Vaccine
20I would have my children or parents take the vaccine when it comes out.Vaccine
  • All answer choices are rated using a 5-point Likert scale (strongly disagree through strongly agree). For questions 1–13, strongly agree is scored as 5, while for questions 14–20 strongly agree is scored as 1 (reverse scoring). Higher values reflect a greater burden and the total score therefore ranges from 20 to 100.

  • NPI, non-pharmaceutical intervention; OPAS-C, Oxford Pandemic Attitude Scale-COVID-19.