Table 3

Key information provided in water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) documents, extracted from references to the core concepts scored 3 or 4

Core conceptKey information provided
  • Ensure hygiene promotion targets everyone in the community, regardless of gender, disability, and so on.

2.Individualised services
  • Provide households with additional hygiene products and specific items (eg, menstrual hygiene materials and incontinence products)

  • Households with a member with a disability may need more water to maintain good levels of hygiene and personal care

  • Consider alternative ways of reaching people with disabilities who cannot leave their home (eg, contact their caregivers and family members)

  • Subsidise utilities or provide cash transfers to vulnerable households

4.Capability-based services
  • Consult with Organisations of People with Disabilities in programme and service provision

  • Promote representation of people with disabilities on WASH committees

  • Engage people with disabilities in programme planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation

  • Consult Organisations of People with Disabilities in WASH programme and service provision

6.Coordination of services
  • Develop partnerships with local private actors, government and NGOs to secure WASH services and supplies for people with disabilities

  • Civil society organisations can help governments identify people with disabilities and the appropriate support needed

7.Protection from harm
  • Ensure privacy during personal care

  • Address safety and risk of violence against people with disabilities when using WASH facilities, including a focus on gender-based violence

  • Support must empower people with disabilities to be active participants in WASH decision-making

  • Advocate for a more inclusive WASH response

13.Family resource
  • Recognise the role of family members during this pandemic and support them to assist people with disabilities in accessing WASH

14.Family support
  • Provide information and support to informal family caregivers on effective WASH behaviours in the home

15.Cultural responsiveness
  • Respond to the diverse needs of people with different impairments; people with disabilities are not a homogenous group

  • Develop safe and responsive and responsive feedback/complaints mechanisms

  • Assistive devices should be cleaned regularly to prevent COVID-19 transmission

  • Ensure continued care of pre-existing conditions by health services and provide services to prevent of other infections (eg, immunisation services, psychosocial support, nutrition)

18.Capacity building
  • Provide training and guidance to households on how to support people with disabilities in using WASH facilities and adopting hygiene behaviours

  • Promote disability awareness among staff in healthcare and WASH services, including appropriate communication

  • Provide accessible WASH facilities (eg, handwashing and bathing)

  • Communication strategies must be adapted and accessible to people with varying impairments

  • Maintain accessibility of WASH facilities across schools, healthcare, community settings, and so on.

  • Where appropriate, use innovative technology to increase WASH access, but ensure this is accessible

  • Conduct rapid reviews of WASH barriers and challenges faced by people with disabilities and their caregivers

  • Conduct accessibility audits with people who have a disability

  • Be evidence driven and evaluate effectiveness and acceptability of initiatives for people with disabilities

  • Adapt WASH assessment and monitoring tools to collect information on the needs of people with disabilities and caregivers

  • Ensure budget allocation for disability training, programme and policy activities in WASH activities

  • Advocate with governments for disability-inclusive WASH to be included in national policies

  • NGO, non-governmental organisation.