Table 4

Barriers to addressing academic bullying

BarrierNo of studies/total studies*No of participants/total participants (%)
Low reporting rates
 Lack of awareness of what constitutes bullying5/3573/642 (11.4)
 Lack of awareness of reporting process15/351115/4215 (26.5)
 Lack of perceived benefit9/35667/1621 (41.1)
 Fear that bullying would worsen13/35969/2696 (35.9)
 Fear of career ramifications15/351094/2664 (41.1)
 Concerns regarding confidentiality4/3556/445 (12.6)
Institutional factors
 Hierarchical nature of medicine7/35Not reported
 Recurring cycle of abuse3/35Not reported
 Normalisation of bullying10/35Not reported
 Lack of enforcement13/35586/1400 (41.9)
  • *Total number of studies that described barriers of bullying behaviours.