Table 2

Self-reported description of specific bullying behaviours

BehaviourNo of studies/
total studies*
Total cohort
No affected/total participants who completed surveys on behaviours (%)*
No affected/total men who completed surveys on behaviours (%)†
No affected/total women who completed surveys on behaviours (%)†
Threats to professional status
 Persistent unjustified criticism12/284495/16 700 (26.9)535/1690 (31.7)552/1402 (39.4)
 Excessive monitoring of work6/281752/6079 (28.8)442/1525 (27.7)441/1298 (34.0)
 Intimidatory use of discipline15/281531/19 471 (7.9)366/2381 (15.4)363/2209 (16.4)
 Spread of gossip/rumours7/282977/10 060 (29.6)88/596 (14.8)94/453 (20.8)
 False allegations6/28613/3796 (16.1)59/596 (9.9)54/453 (11.9)
 Refusal of leave, training or promotion9/281604/8551 (18.8)296/2594 (11.4)458/2340 (19.6)
 Social/professional exclusion17/286160/21 099 (29.1)420/2027 (20.7)1064/2814 (37.8)
 Undue pressure to produce work7/282509/6562 (38.2)233/1525 (15.3)355/1570 (22.6)
 Setting impossible deadlines6/281571/6079 (25.8)164/1525 (10.8)189/1298 (14.6)
 Shifting goalposts1/2854/417 (12.9)Not reportedNot reported
 Removal of areas of responsibility without consultation8/281397/6193 (22.6)160/1525 (10.5)171/1298 (13.2)
 Withholding information that affects performance9/283836/12 503 (30.7)219/1553 (14.1)267/1328 (20.1)
 Ordered to work below one’s competence level10/282934/8119 (36.1)81/625 (13.0)99/483 (20.5)
  • *Total number of studies that described types of bullying behaviours, including studies that did not stratify results by sex. As a result, the denominator for the number of participants in total is not the sum of the denominators for men and women. The denominator was calculated from the total number of individuals who completed surveys on specific bullying behaviours, while the numerator was calculated from the number of individuals who indicated they experienced the specified bullying behaviour. Not all survey studies offered respondents the same options to respond to, and as a result the denominators for each bullying behaviour differ.

  • †Of the studies that separated data by gender or solely included the results of one gender and included the specified bullying behaviour.