Table 2

Influenza vaccine uptake by social characteristics among pregnant women in England, 2010/2011–2015/2016

Total
(column %)
Received influenza vaccine unadjusted coverage
(row %)
Minimally adjusted for year
‘minimally adjusted’
OR (95% CI)
Model 1 additionally adjusted for IMD, region and ethnicity
OR (95% CI)
Model 2 additionally adjusted for maternal age
OR (95% CI)
Model 3 additionally adjusted for number of children
OR (95% CI)
Model 4 additionally adjusted for clinical risk group ‘fully adjusted’
OR (95% CI)
Season
 201034 373 (24.5)11 703 (34.0)11111
 201132 258 (23.0)10 151 (31.5)0.89 (0.86 to 0.92)0.89 (0.86 to 0.92)0.89 (0.86 to 0.92)0.89 (0.86 to 0.92)0.89 (0.86 to 0.92)
 201226 750 (19.1)12 236 (45.7)1.63 (1.58 to 1.69)1.66 (1.61 to 1.72)1.66 (1.61 to 1.72)1.64 (1.59 to 1.70)1.65 (1.60 to 1.71)
 201321 029 (15.0)8815 (41.9)1.40 (1.35 to 1.45)1.43 (1.38 to 1.48)1.42 (1.37 to 1.47)1.39 (1.35 to 1.45)1.40 (1.35 to 1.45)
 201415 712 (11.2)7319 (46.6)1.69 (1.63 to 1.76)1.74 (1.67 to 1.80)1.73 (1.67 to 1.80)1.69 (1.63 to 1.76)1.70 (1.63 to 1.76)
 201510 019 (7.1)4613 (46.0)1.65 (1.58 to 1.73)1.72 (1.65 to 1.80)1.72 (1.64 to 1.80)1.68 (1.60 to 1.76)1.68 (1.60 to 1.76)
Index of multiple deprivation (IMD) quintile
 Least deprived28 956 (20.7)12 744 (44.0)11111
 225 424 (18.1)10 533 (41.4)0.90 (0.87 to 0.93)0.91 (0.88 to 0.94)0.92 (0.89 to 0.95)0.93 (0.89 to 0.96)0.92 (0.89 to 0.95)
 329 368 (21.0)11 670 (39.7)0.84 (0.81 to 0.86)0.84 (0.82 to 0.87)0.86 (0.83 to 0.89)0.88 (0.85 to 0.91)0.88 (0.85 to 0.91)
 428 520 (20.4)10 278 (36.0)0.71 (0.69 to 0.74)0.72 (0.69 to 0.74)0.74 (0.71 to 0.77)0.77 (0.74 to 0.79)0.76 (0.74 to 0.79)
 Most deprived27 873 (19.9)9612 (34.5)0.67 (0.65 to 0.70)0.66 (0.64 to 0.68)0.69 (0.66 to 0.71)0.73 (0.70 to 0.76)0.72 (0.70 to 0.75)
Region
 London26 171 (18.7)9146 (34.9)11111
 North East2758 (2.0)989 (35.9)1.11 (1.02 to 1.21)1.16 (1.07 to 1.27)1.19 (1.09 to 1.29)1.21 (1.11 to 1.31)1.21 (1.11 to 1.31)
 North West19 060 (13.6)7870 (41.3)1.37 (1.32 to 1.42)1.39 (1.33 to 1.45)1.40 (1.35 to 1.46)1.43 (1.37 to 1.49)1.42 (1.36 to 1.47)
 Yorkshire and The Humber2840 (2.0)1090 (38.4)1.27 (1.18 to 1.38)1.24 (1.15 to 1.35)1.26 (1.16 to 1.37)1.26 (1.16 to 1.37)1.26 (1.16 to 1.37)
 East Midlands1940 (1.4)717 (37.0)1.33 (1.21 to 1.47)1.37 (1.24 to 1.51)1.39 (1.26 to 1.53)1.41 (1.27 to 1.55)1.40 (1.27 to 1.55)
 West Midlands15 846 (11.3)6692 (42.2)1.41 (1.35 to 1.46)1.40 (1.34 to 1.46)1.41 (1.36 to 1.47)1.44 (1.38 to 1.51)1.43 (1.37 to 1.49)
 East of England13 695 (9.8)5468 (39.9)1.31 (1.26 to 1.37)1.23 (1.18 to 1.29)1.24 (1.19 to 1.29)1.25 (1.20 to 1.31)1.24 (1.19 to 1.30)
 South West16 546 (11.8)6504 (39.3)1.25 (1.20 to 1.31)1.22 (1.17 to 1.28)1.24 (1.19 to 1.29)1.27 (1.21 to 1.32)1.25 (1.20 to 1.31)
 South Central21 435 (15.3)9125 (42.6)1.42 (1.36 to 1.47)1.30 (1.25 to 1.35)1.31 (1.26 to 1.36)1.34 (1.29 to 1.39)1.33 (1.28 to 1.38)
 South East Coast19 850 (14.2)7236 (36.5)1.06 (1.02 to 1.10)0.99 (0.95 to 1.03)1.00 (0.96 to 1.04)1.02 (0.98 to 1.06)1.02 (0.98 to 1.06)
Ethnicity
 White117 469 (83.8)46 781 (39.8)11111
 South Asian10 827 (7.7)4103 (37.9)0.92 (0.88 to 0.95)0.98 (0.94 to 1.02)0.96 (0.92 to 1.00)0.98 (0.94 to 1.02)0.99 (0.95 to 1.03)
 Black5853 (4.2)1837 (31.4)0.67 (0.64 to 0.71)0.81 (0.76 to 0.86)0.80 (0.75 to 0.85)0.83 (0.78 to 0.88)0.83 (0.78 to 0.88)
 Mixed2094 (1.5)757 (36.2)0.84 (0.77 to 0.92)0.90 (0.82 to 0.99)0.90 (0.82 to 0.99)0.91 (0.83 to 0.99)0.91 (0.83 to 0.99)
 Other3898 (2.8)1359 (34.9)0.79 (0.73 to 0.84)0.85 (0.80 to 0.91)0.84 (0.78 to 0.90)0.83 (0.78 to 0.89)0.85 (0.79 to 0.91)
Maternal age, years
 <205536 (4.0)1817 (32.8)0.87 (0.81 to 0.92)0.87 (0.82 to 0.93)0.87 (0.82 to 0.93)0.87 (0.82 to 0.93)
 20–2421 663 (15.5)7797 (36.0)1111
 25–2937 985 (27.1)14 827 (39.0)1.13 (1.09 to 1.17)1.11 (1.07 to 1.15)1.12 (1.09 to 1.16)1.12 (1.08 to 1.16)
 30–3543 777 (31.2)17 950 (41.0)1.22 (1.18 to 1.26)1.18 (1.14 to 1.22)1.21 (1.17 to 1.26)1.21 (1.17 to 1.25)
 ≥3531 180 (22.2)12 446 (39.9)1.17 (1.12 to 1.21)1.12 (1.08 to 1.16)1.19 (1.15 to 1.24)1.18 (1.13 to 1.22)
Number of children
 066 112 (47.2)28 457 (43.0)111
 145 969 (32.8)17 092 (37.2)0.80 (0.78 to 0.82)0.80 (0.78 to 0.82)0.80 (0.78 to 0.82)
 218 192 (13.0)6242 (34.3)0.71 (0.68 to 0.73)0.72 (0.69 to 0.74)0.71 (0.69 to 0.74)
 ≥39868 (7.0)3046 (30.9)0.61 (0.58 to 0.63)0.63 (0.60 to 0.66)0.62 (0.59 to 0.65)
Clinical risk group recommended for influenza vaccination
 No130 160 (92.9)49 752 (38.2)11
 Yes9981 (7.1)5085 (50.9)1.69 (1.62 to 1.76)1.70 (1.63 to 1.77)
Body mass index (BMI)
 <18.5 underweight4865 (3.5)1744 (35.8)0.85 (0.80 to 0.90)
 18.5–24.966 405 (47.4)26 331 (39.7)1
 25.0–29.9 overweight31 855 (22.7)12 882 (40.4)1.04 (1.01 to 1.07)
 ≥30 obese23 142 (16.5)9222 (39.8)1.00 (0.97 to 1.03)
 Missing13 874 (9.9)4658 (33.6)
  • N=1 40 141 from 456 practices. Overall vaccine uptake 54 837 (39.1%).

  • All models include women who registered before the end of the first trimester, and exclude those with no recorded pregnancy outcome or missing ethnicity; minimally adjusted model of BMI additionally excludes 13 874 women with missing BMI.