Table 2

Major themes and illustrative quotes identified through in-depth interviews

ThemesSubthemesIllustrative quotes
Challenges faced and impacts of the COVID-19 pandemicFeelings of fear, anxiety or stress associated with COVID-19‘Yes. I was scared of that (covid). I had to do the (blood sugar) test. I was scared that I may not have this but because of someone else I may get affected. I went with the full safety and all. We have doubt to go to the hospital, to the doctor. I didn’t want to get affected by this.’ (U-D_02-D)
‘everyone scares us saying that it is difficult for the diabetic. So, I didn’t want that to happen. Because they had the spread the awareness that diabetics, old aged people have a problem during this corona. And yes, I was scared.’ (U-K_05-D)
Impact on self-care behaviours, such as diet, exercise‘…… Earlier, I was not able to eat on time and used to feel tired. Now, because of this COVID, I am taking my food on time and now I don’t have any problem. Now, my sugar is normal, and tiredness is also not there. Because of maintaining time, I feel healthy.’ (U-05-V)
‘In the beginning during the first month I faced problem from COVID… When government had enforced restriction to not go out… so at that time I used to do some exercises which I know at home only.’ (U-05-V)
‘The income is stopped so this is natural worry. That’s the tension which I have on every 3rd or 4th day.’ (U-C_01-D)
‘There was no issue with the health, but the mind was disturbed a bit. The work is not there, and I am not going for the job also. The salary is not coming fully and when we do stay at home then we will be irritated. That used to happen many times like at night till 2am or 3am I was not having sleep at all. Then it is also like if I sleep at 3am then I have to sleep till 8am or 9am or 10am also. I had to stay awake and I play games on mobile for 2 to 3 hours. I wake up at 5am also.’ (U-D_02-D)
‘since, there has been lockdown, I am not able to go out for walks, at home how much will you walk, so that is not possible nowadays.’ (U-J_04-D)
Impact on access to healthcare‘The medical shops were open all the time and government also did not restrict people who were going to medical stores right.’ (U-08-V)
‘I was not keeping well and none of the hospitals were taking any admission. They said that due to covid, beds are not available. And if you are ready to sleep on ground then we will take your admission……….’ (U-08-V)
‘We were afraid of meeting the doctor. There will be many patients in the hospital. We are afraid of this and because of that we don’t go to meet doctor.’ (U-09-C)
‘I didn’t go to the hospital. The corona was there, and that time hospital was not good to visit. I was saving myself.’ (U-N_06_D)
‘I didn’t have any issue because all those services were open. The doctors were doing the check-ups online or on WhatsApp or on video calls also.’ (U-S_09_D)
‘in government hospitals I will have to run from place to place there and now since the corona is there, they don’t listen to you at all.’ (U-L_01-S)
Impact on employment and income‘We faced difficulties at home because I am into driving. Actually, I am driver. Before lockdown, I went home for some work. Because of lockdown, I had to stay at home for 2 months 15 days. I, my wife and children are jobless since then. There was no possibility of doing any work or going anywhere. We had a lot of trouble at that time. We could not go out. We just got along with what we have, taking help from relatives. That 2 months, 15 days, we faced difficulty.’ (R-02-V)
Impact on lifestyle and socialising‘I only go out in case of some need. When there is work, only then I try and go out.’ (U-J_04-D)
‘It is difficult, but we don’t go out at all. There was a death in the family for that also I could not go. My brother died; I could not go.’ (U-10-C)
‘We are not able to meet the daily expenses. Also, we have to run the house, whatever we earn goes in the daily grocery and vegetable needs.’ (U-R_07-D)
‘all the things are become very expensive. Life is tough now.’ (R-S_06-S)
‘I would say this has ended the humanity like we cannot meet anyone and support anyone. If we go to someone then we cannot go inside the house and we have to stand outside of the house. Earlier if we go to someone then they used to ask us to sit at home and ask for having tea or not. Now we cannot even ask anyone. They think that we don’t know why people are behaving like this. If someone comes from outside, then people do not even take them inside the home also. We talk to the people standing outside and ask them to leave from there only.’ (U-D_02-D)
Impact on other factors such as children’s education‘No, they are not studying. You see, I am working, and my wife is also working, if we sit by their side, they are studying, we just advise them as much possible. So, that is the problem.’ (U-02-C)
‘They are sitting at home and learning online. we have to get the recharge for them for 200 or 250. So, that expenditure has increased.’ (U-R_07-D)
‘I agree that studies have suffered because studies weren’t happening at all during the lockdown, as such schools are closed, what to do and what not, this definitely is a problem. that they couldn’t study well, schools are closed, what the children can do.’ (U-S_04-S)
Experience of the participants diagnosed with COVID-19‘The outsiders feel that we are infected only. Whenever people used to come out, they behaved as if don’t know what has happened. I used to feel that how these people are. But what can we say now about anyone?’ (U-K_05-D)
‘You cannot stop someone, they might have said something (rumours), that corona has spread in the family and they should stay away from that family.’ (U-D_08-S)
Preventive measures taken during lockdown /mitigators‘We should follow social distancing. We should not go near to the person while talking. We should wear masks. If we go and come back with all these safety measures, then we would not be affected by it.’ (U-09-C)
‘Earlier, when we used to bring vegetables, we used to keep in our fridge directly. Now, when we go to bring vegetables in the market, we wear mask and use sanitizer and after coming backing we keep all items under sun and wash it with the solution of turmeric, water and salt and after drying we will keep it in the fridge. We are taking more care of our health after covid.’ (U-05-V)
Lessons learnt from the pandemic‘It is good to be safe. We should avoid going out often to be safe because we don’t know who are infected.’ (U-01-C)
‘We have to be careful from the corona and we have to be safe from this. That’s the only medicine now.’ (U-C_01-D)