Table 1

Summary of studies

Study 1Study 2Study 3Study 4
Target population for recruitmentGeneral Population
(80 000)
Citizens with Possible Cognitive Decline
‘Frail Check’ Participants
Brain health school programme participants
Sample population50 1552385270557
Baseline evaluationKCLCFI, EQ-5D, GDSCFI, EQ-5D,
General Frailty Measures
CFI, GDS, etc
Primary outcomeLTC NeedLTC NeedLTC NeedMMSE
Secondary outcomeLTC Need LevelCFI, EQ-5DLTC Need LevelEQ-5D, CFI, Five Cog, etc
InterventionNoneNoneNoneIntensive Cognitive Training
Study period4–5 years2 years2 years30 months
  • CFI, Cognitive Function Instrument; GDS, Geriatric Depression Scale; KCL, Kihon Check List; LTC, long-term care; MMSE, Mini Mental State Examination.