Table 3

Severity categories and scores of depression, anxiety, insomnia, distress, burnout and professional fulfilment measurements in total cohort and categorised between direct COVID-19 care

TotalHave you ever directly cared for a patient with COVID-19?
YesNoP value
Depression(n=425)(n=292)(n=133)<0.001
PHQ-9None197 (46.4%)116 (39.7%)81 (60.9%)
Mild139 (32.7%)99 (33.9%)40 (30.1%)
Moderate50 (11.8%)43 (14.7%)7 (5.3%)
Severe39 (9.2%)34 (11.6%)5 (3.8%)
Anxiety(n=418)(n=287)(n=131)0.017
GAD-7Minimal208 (49.8%)131 (45.6%)77 (58.8%)
Mild148 (35.4%)104 (36.2%)44 (33.6%)
Moderate33 (7.9%)27 (9.4%)6 (4.6%)
Severe29 (6.9%)25 (8.7%)4 (3.1%)
Insomnia(n=418)(n=287)(n=131)0.001
ISINone246 (58.9%)156 (54.4%)90 (68.7%)
Subthreshold127 (30.4%)90 (31.4%)37 (28.2%)
Moderate39 (9.3%)36 (12.5%)3 (2.3%)
Severe6 (1.4%)5 (1.7%)1 (0.8%)
Distress(n=410)(n=281)(n=129)0.008
IES-RNormal283 (69.0%)185 (65.8%)98 (76.0%)
Mild44 (10.7%)28 (10.0%)16 (12.4%)
Moderate24 (5.9%)17 (6.0%)7 (5.4%)
Severe59 (14.4%)51 (18.1%)8 (6.2%)
Burnout(n=404)(n=278)(n=126)
≤1.33219 (54.2%)130 (46.8%)89 (70.6%)<0.001
>1.33185 (45.8%)148 (53.2%)37 (29.4%)
Professional fulfilment
≤3.00327 (81.1%)231 (83.1%)96 (76.8%)0.168
>3.0076 (18.9%)47 (16.9%)29 (23.2%)
IES-R subscales
Avoidance subscale0.80 (0.10, 1.40)0.90 (0.10, 1.80)0.60 (0.00, 1.10)0.032
Intrusion subscale0.65 (0.10, 1.30)0.80 (0.10, 1.50)0.60 (0.00, 1.10)0.065
Hyperarousal subscale0.40 (0.00, 1.20)0.50 (0.20, 1.30)0.30 (0.00, 0.80)0.041
Burnout subscales
Professional fulfilment54.17 (37.50, 75.00)50.00 (33.33, 75.00)58.33 (45.83, 75.00)<0.001
Work exhaustion43.75 (25.00, 68.75)50.00 (25.00, 75.00)31.25 (18.75, 50.00)<0.001
Interpersonal disengagement20.42 (0.00, 37.50)25.00 (0.00, 41.67)8.33 (0.00, 25.00)<0.001
  • GAD-7, 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder; IES-R, Impact of Event Scale-Revised; ISI, Insomnia Severity Index; PHQ-9, 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire.