Table 3

The relationship between wealth and emotional well-being before, during, versus after the nationwide COVID-19 outbreak in China

Overall emotional well-being
Model 1Model 2Model 3Model 4Model 5Model 6Model 7
During−0.323****−0.301****−0.303****−0.182****−0.180****−0.170****−0.171****
(0.012)(0.022)(0.021)(0.035)(0.035)(0.037)(0.037)
After−0.052****−0.080****−0.065****−0.054***−0.046*−0.064***−0.064***
(0.008)(0.012)(0.012)(0.018)(0.019)(0.020)(0.020)
Income0.019****0.013****0.019****0.013****0.012****
(0.004)(0.004)(0.002)(0.004)(0.004)
Income×during−0.011−0.014−0.007−0.008
(0.011)(0.011)(0.011)(0.011)
Income×after0.017****0.014***0.014**0.014***
(0.005)(0.005)(0.005)(0.005)
Real estate ownership.195****.220****.206****.216****.210****
(0.010)(0.015)(0.016)(0.016)(0.016)
Real estate ownership
×during
−0.166****−0.163****−0.165****−0.161****
(0.037)(0.037)(0.037)(0.037)
Real estate ownership
×after
0.0180.0100.0010.0006
(0.020)(0.021)(0.021)(0.021)
Hubei−0.007−0.004−0.005
(0.017)(0.017)(0.017)
Age0.00040.00040.0004
(0.0003)(0.0003)(0.0003)
Sex0.0050.0050.005
(0.007)(0.007)(0.007)
Married0.0070.0060.006
(0.010)(0.010)(0.010)
N26 64426 00926 00926 64426 00926 00926 009
Constant0.437****0.403****0.224****0.249****0.206****0.229****0.215****
(0.005)(0.009)(0.015)(0.014)(0.018)(0.015)(0.018)
  • SEs are shown in parentheses below coefficient estimates. Dummy variable coding: during (1=during the nationwide COVID-19 outbreak, 0=other time period), after (1=after the nationwide COVID-19 outbreak had been contained and the economy reopened, 0=other time period), real estate ownership (1=owner, 0=non-owner), Hubei (1=in Hubei, 0=not in Hubei), sex (1=female, 0=male) and married (1=married, 0=not married). (Zero values on the during and after dummies represent the before pandemic time period, which serves as the reference group in the analyses.) N represents the final sample size of the respective analysis.

  • *P<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.005, ****p<0.001