Table 2

Generalised estimation equations producing population average ORs

n (%)n (%)aOR (95% CI, p value)aOR (95% CI, p value)aOR (95% CI, p value)aOR (95% CI, p value)
Outcome
ICU mortality, n (%)1247 (25)849 (30)1.52 (1.22 to 1.88;<0.001)1.37 (1.08 to 1.72; 0.009)1.39 (1.06 to 1.83; 0.02)1.50 (1.09 to 2.06; 0.01)
30-day mortality, n (%)1917 (41)1132 (42)1.31 (1.06 to 1.62; 0.01)1.16 (0.92 to 1.46; 0.22)1.03 (0.77 to 1.38; 0.83)0.89 (0.66 to 1.21; 0.47)
Treatment limitation
Treatment withhold, n (%)1265 (26)975 (34)1.44 (1.09 to 1.90; 0.01)1.18 (0.80 to 1.72; 0.41)1.10 (0.78 to 1.53; 0.59)
Treatment witdraw, n (%)737 (15)410 (14)1.19 (0.92 to 1.54; 0.18)1.04 (0.76 to 1.44; 0.79)0.83 (0.56 to 1.22; 0.34)
Management strategies
NIV, n (%)1222 (25)706 (25)1.01 (0.77 to 1.32; 0.96)1.00 (0.73 to 1.37; 0.997)0.54 (0.36 to 0.80; 0.002)
Mechanical ventilation, n (%)2425 (49)1562 (54)1.37 (1.02 to 1.85; 0.04)1.42 (1.03 to 1.95; 0.03)2.06 (1.39 to 3.07;<0.001)
Vasoactive drugs, n (%)2900 (59)1676 (58)1.12 (0.86 to 1.44; 0.40)1.25 (0.92 to 1.69; 0.15)1.34 (0.89 to 2.02; 0.16)
Renal replacement therapy, n (%)460 (9)373 (13)1.63 (1.18 to 2.24; 0.003)1.70 (1.22 to 2.39; 0.002)1.89 (1.27 to 2.82; 0.002)
  • Model-1 includes only the ICU as panel. Model-2 includes patient specific factors (sex, age per year, SOFA Score per point, Frailty Score per Clinical Frailty Scale point and the admission diagnosis). Model-3 adds the health economic data (GDP per capita, HDI and health spending per capita). Model-4 adds the treatment strategies (treatment limitations and organ support) and calculates only mortality. Adjusted OR (aOR) and respective 95% CI were obtained.

  • Model 1—ICU cluster as random effect.

  • Model 2—Model 1 plus patient level (sex, SOFA, age, frailty, admission diagnosis).

  • Model 3—Model 2 plus economic data (health spending, HDI, GDP, ICU beds).

  • Model 4—Model 3 plus management strategies (NIV, mechanical ventilation, renal replacement therapy, vasoactive drugs) and treatment limitation (treatment withdraw and/or withhold).

  • GDP, gross domestic product; HDI, human development index; ICU, intensive care unit; NIV, non-invasive ventilation; SOFA, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment.