Table 2

Generalised estimation equations producing population average ORs

 n (%) n (%) aOR (95% CI, p value) aOR (95% CI, p value) aOR (95% CI, p value) aOR (95% CI, p value) Outcome ICU mortality, n (%) 1247 (25) 849 (30) 1.52 (1.22 to 1.88;<0.001) 1.37 (1.08 to 1.72; 0.009) 1.39 (1.06 to 1.83; 0.02) 1.50 (1.09 to 2.06; 0.01) 30-day mortality, n (%) 1917 (41) 1132 (42) 1.31 (1.06 to 1.62; 0.01) 1.16 (0.92 to 1.46; 0.22) 1.03 (0.77 to 1.38; 0.83) 0.89 (0.66 to 1.21; 0.47) Treatment limitation Treatment withhold, n (%) 1265 (26) 975 (34) 1.44 (1.09 to 1.90; 0.01) 1.18 (0.80 to 1.72; 0.41) 1.10 (0.78 to 1.53; 0.59) Treatment witdraw, n (%) 737 (15) 410 (14) 1.19 (0.92 to 1.54; 0.18) 1.04 (0.76 to 1.44; 0.79) 0.83 (0.56 to 1.22; 0.34) Management strategies NIV, n (%) 1222 (25) 706 (25) 1.01 (0.77 to 1.32; 0.96) 1.00 (0.73 to 1.37; 0.997) 0.54 (0.36 to 0.80; 0.002) Mechanical ventilation, n (%) 2425 (49) 1562 (54) 1.37 (1.02 to 1.85; 0.04) 1.42 (1.03 to 1.95; 0.03) 2.06 (1.39 to 3.07;<0.001) Vasoactive drugs, n (%) 2900 (59) 1676 (58) 1.12 (0.86 to 1.44; 0.40) 1.25 (0.92 to 1.69; 0.15) 1.34 (0.89 to 2.02; 0.16) Renal replacement therapy, n (%) 460 (9) 373 (13) 1.63 (1.18 to 2.24; 0.003) 1.70 (1.22 to 2.39; 0.002) 1.89 (1.27 to 2.82; 0.002)
• Model-1 includes only the ICU as panel. Model-2 includes patient specific factors (sex, age per year, SOFA Score per point, Frailty Score per Clinical Frailty Scale point and the admission diagnosis). Model-3 adds the health economic data (GDP per capita, HDI and health spending per capita). Model-4 adds the treatment strategies (treatment limitations and organ support) and calculates only mortality. Adjusted OR (aOR) and respective 95% CI were obtained.

• Model 1—ICU cluster as random effect.

• Model 2—Model 1 plus patient level (sex, SOFA, age, frailty, admission diagnosis).

• Model 3—Model 2 plus economic data (health spending, HDI, GDP, ICU beds).

• Model 4—Model 3 plus management strategies (NIV, mechanical ventilation, renal replacement therapy, vasoactive drugs) and treatment limitation (treatment withdraw and/or withhold).

• GDP, gross domestic product; HDI, human development index; ICU, intensive care unit; NIV, non-invasive ventilation; SOFA, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment.