Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the cohort

n=4941n=2876
Female sex n (%)2282 (46)1418 (49)0.008
Age (years)
Median (±IQR)84 (5)84 (5)<0.001
Age >90 n (%)450 (9)324 (11)0.002
Frailty Score—CFS
Median (±IQR)4 (3)4 (3)<0.001
Frailty (CFS>4) n (%)2008 (41)1317 (46)<0.001
ADL*
Median (±IQR)6 (1)6 (2)0.03
Disablitiy (ADL≤4)462 (24)446 (30)<0.001
IQCODE*
Median (±IQR)3.19 (0.61)3.25 (0.75)<0.001
Cognitive decline (IQCODE ≥3.5) n (%)460 (29)493 (37)<0.001
SOFA Score
Median (±IQR)7 (6)7 (6)0.006
SOFA quartiles0.007
SOFA 0–4 n (%)1514 (31)844 (30)
SOFA 5–7 n (%)1277 (26)747 (26)
SOFA 8–10 n (%)1090 (23)608 (21)
SOFA>10 n (%)972 (20)667 (23)
ICU length of stay (hours)
Median (±IQR)72 (134)90 (162)<0.001
ICU stay <72 hours n (%)2476 (50)1299 (45)<0.001
CPS*
Median (±IQR)10 (7)11 (7)0.10
Admission diagnosis
Respiratory failure1128 (23)772 (27)<0.001
Circulatory failure657 (13)423 (15)0.08
Combined circulatory and respiratory failure535 (11)352 (12)0.06
Sepsis693 (14)354 (12)0.03
Multitrauma without head injury92 (2)55 (2)0.98
Multitrauma with head injury87 (2)58 (2)0.42
Head injury117 (2)78 (3)0.35
Intoxication13 (<1)23 (<1)0.001
Cerebral injury (non-traumatic)286 (6)212 (7)0.006
Emergency surgery694 (14)239 (8)<0.001
Other637 (13)310 (11)0.006
Economic data
Health spending per capita (US$)
Median (±IQR)4653 (1626)5376 (389)<0.001
HDI
Median (±IQR)0.92 (0.05)0.89 (0.04)<0.001
GDP per capita (US$)
Median (±IQR)41 030 (18 295)41 760 (8262)<0.001
ICU beds
Median (±IQR)6.6 (2.0)11.6 (5.2)<0.001
  • *Only available in VIP2 study.

  • ADL, activities of daily living; CFS, Clinical Frailty Scale; CPS, Co-morbidity and Polypharmacy Score; GDP, gross domestic product; HDI, human development index; ICU, intensive care unit; IQCODE, Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly; SHI, social heath insurance system; SOFA, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment; THS, tax-based health service.