Table 1

Characteristics of children with KD and healthy controls

KD (n=176)Controls (n=85)Statistic†P value
Children’s characteristics
 Age (months)66.5±39.077.3±38.0−2.1140.035*
 Age of KD onset (months)21.6±17.7N/AN/A
 Male107 (60.8)46 (54.1)
 Female69 (39.2)39 (45.9)
 Intravenous immunoglobulinN/AN/A
 None7 (4.0)
 Once156 (88.6)
 Twice13 (7.4)
 Coronary artery aneurysmsN/AN/A
 With74 (42.0)
 Without102 (58.0)
 Mullen Scales of Early Learning
 Gross Motor‡52.0±13.152.7±12.00.0910.765
 Visual Reception54.0±13.853.1±17.20.0620.804
 Fine Motor50.2±13.450.1±11.60.0370.847
 Receptive Language57.0±11.551.2±10.73.8380.054
 Expressive Language51.7±13.250.5±11.20.2290.634
 Composite scores106.2±19.4105.0±19.20.0870.768
 Full Scale IQ103.7±10.4107.6±11.71.3800.243
 Verbal Comprehension Index105.2±10.7107.1±14.31.1320.290
 Visual Spatial Index98.8±14.9101.5±10.90.2620.610
 Fluid Reasoning Index107.0±12.0107.0±13.90.0030.960
 Working Memory Index99.0±12.4100.3±15.30.1500.700
 Processing Speed Index103.3±12.5106.9±12.70.6830.411
 Full Scale IQ109.1±11.1109.7±17.41.0390.311
 Verbal Comprehension Index108.2±13.4111.3±16.30.0220.882
 Perceptual Reasoning Index106.1±14.8106.4±17.20.5760.450
 Working Memory Index110.3±13.1111.4±15.30.3310.567
 Processing Speed Index103.0±14.398.4±15.13.9280.051
Caregivers’ characteristics
 Age (years)37.6±4.838.2±5.0−0.8890.375
 Male26 (14.9)17 (20.0)
 Female149 (85.1)68 (80.0)
 Education levels8.0800.018*
 High school or lower81 (46.8)29 (34.1)
 College77 (44.5)39 (45.9)
 Master or above15 (8.7)17 (20.0)
 Family expenditure (per month)§0.5150.773
 <50 000 NT$94 (59.9)42 (55.3)
 50 000–100 000 NT$46 (29.3)24 (31.6)
 >100 000 NT$17 (10.8)10 (13.2)
 Defensive Responding18.0±5.218.0±5.30.1930.660
 Parental Distress30.2±8.230.0±9.00.0030.958
 Parent–Child Dysfunctional Interaction23.1±7.024.4±8.32.2040.139
 Difficult Child27.4±8.129.0±8.63.8360.051
 Total score80.7±20.483.1±21.91.7490.187
  • Data are expressed as mean±SD or n (%).

  • *p<0.05.

  • †Statistical values are expressed as t value or χ2.

  • ‡Gross Motor is only for children aged <33 months.

  • §NT$ represents new Taiwan dollars (US$1=31.1 NT$). There were 28 missing values (19 patients with ADHD and 9 controls).

  • ADHD, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; KD, Kawasaki disease; PSI-SF, Parenting Stress Index-Short Form; WISC-IV, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition; WPPSI, Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence.