Table 4

Effect of interventions to reduce scanxiety

First authorYearInterventionMeasurement of scanxietyImpact of intervention on scanxiety
Name of toolRange of tool (anxiety threshold)Timing of assessmentDescription of resultsP value
Mainiero622001Arm A: an educational video about breast cancer and mammography
Arm B: an entertaining movie (from the 1940s to 1960s)
6-point Likert score0–5 (NA)Prescan: immediate
Postscan: immediate
No differenceNR
Domar632005Arm A: relaxation audiotape or
Arm B: music audiotape or
Arm C: control (blank audiotape)
STAI: state anxiety subscaleNR (NA)Prescan: immediateNo difference
Arm A versus arm B versus arm C: 34.8 versus 33.6 versus 33.2
0.18
Postscan: immediateNo difference
Arm A versus arm B versus arm C: 30.4 versus 30.9 versus 33.2
0.78
STAI: trait anxiety subscaleNR (NA)Prescan: immediateNo difference
Arm A versus arm B versu arm C: 32.6 versus 32.7 versus 32.5
0.99
11-point Likert scale1–10 (NA)PostscanNo difference
Arm A versus arm B versus arm C: 2.6 versus 3.2 versus 2.8
0.43
Postscan: immediateNRNR
Fernández-Feito642005Arm A: a protocolised nursing intervention (information and emotional support) and usual care or arm B: usual care aloneSTAI: state anxiety subscale0–60 (NA)Prescan: immediate (postintervention)Less severe<0.001
Less severe if fear of cancer present0.002
Less severe if no fear of cancer present0.003
No difference if fear of cancer outcome present0.09
Less severe if no fear of scan outcome<0.001
STAI: trait anxiety subscale0–60 (NA)Prescan: immediate (postintervention)No difference0.34
Caruso652006Arm A: routine information and 45 min of informative-emotive psychological support with a psychologist or arm B: routine informationCrown Crisp Experimental IndexNR (0–96)Prescan: immediate (postintervention)Less severe
Arm A versus arm B: 39.4 versus 42.3
0.03
STAI: state anxiety subscaleNR (NA)Prescan: immediate (postintervention)No difference
Arm A versus arm B: 57.7 versus 58.6
0.77
Postscan: immediateLess severe0.048
STAI: trait anxiety subscaleNR (NA)Prescan: immediate (postintervention)NRNR
Vogel662012Arm A: uptake room with an audio-visual installation involving a video of nature scenes on a 119 cm television, dynamic lighting and ambient electronic music
Arm B: uptake room without the audio-visual installation
8-item STAI18–32 (≥16)Prescan: immediately before and immediately after fluorodeoxyglucose uptake periodLess severe
Arm A versus arm B: reduction by 2.39 versus 1.02
0.04
Acuff672014Arm A: receive a handheld device to contact imaging staff during the scan
Arm B: no device
STAI: state anxiety subscale20–80 (NA)During scan: immediately before completion of the scanLess severe
Arm A versus arm B: 22.87 versus 26.45
0.014
Less severe if previous PET/CT
Arm A versus arm B: 20.78 versus 24.64
0.023
No difference if first time PET/CT
Arm A versus arm B: 23.09 versus 27.25, p=0.249
0.249
Raz682014Arm A: multimedia education session and usual care or
arm B: usual care
STAI: state anxiety subscale20–80 (≥40)Prescan: within 2 weeks
Postscan: immediate, at 1 week and 3–7 months postscan
No difference at any time pointNR
STAI: Trait Anxiety subscale20–80 (≥40)No difference at any time pointNR
PCQ: lung cancer adaptation, anxiety subscale0–18 (NR)No difference at any time point0.11 to 0.76
Zavotsky692014Arm A: music of their choice played via dock during the scan
Arm B: no music
11-point Likert scale0–10 (NA)Postscan: immediateNo difference
Arm A versus arm B: 2.36 versus 2.98
0.21
Ashton702019All participants: 10 min shoulder and neck massage and/or hand massage before, during or after imaging, or between two imaging tests11-pointLikert scale0–10 (NA)Postintervention (prescan or postscan)81% had a reduction in anxiety following massage*<0.01
Lorca712019Arm A: mindfulness meditation
Arm B: routine care
STAI: State Anxiety subscaleNR (NA)Postscan: immediateLess severe
Arm A versus arm B: 10.47 versus 29.07
0.000
STAI: Trait Anxiety subscaleNR (NA)No differenceNS
11-item Likert scale0–10 (NA)Less severe
Arm A versus arm B, 1.07 versus 5.70
0.000
  • *Mean scores for overall study population not provided.

  • NA, not applicable; NR, not reported; PCQ, Psychological Consequences Questionnaire; STAI, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory.