Table 1

Demographics and study details for the 47 observational studies

First authorYearNCountry of studyCancer typeAge (years)
(mean*)
Female
(%)
Married or de facto (%)At least secondary education (%)First scan
(%)
Scan typeReason for scanMethods
Andolf151990275SwedenOvarianNR100NRNRNRAbdominal ultrasoundScreeningCross-sectional survey
Bull16†‡1991541UKBreast50–54: 23%
55–59 s 29%
60–64: 34%
65–70: 7%
Unknown: 7%
100NRNRNRMammogramScreeningLongitudinal surveys
Peteet17199279USAAnyNRNRNRNR4CTAny (except screening)Cross-sectional interview
Cockburn181994200AustraliaBreastNR100NRNRNRMammogramScreeningLongitudinal surveys
Ellman191995331UKBreast50–64: 52%
65–78: 48%
100NRNRNRMammogramScreening or surveillanceCross-sectional survey
Sutton20‡§1995306UKBreast581007650NRMammogramScreeningLongitudinal surveys
Bakker211998315CanadaBreast61100717650MammogramScreeningLongitudinal surveys
Gupta221999167KuwaitBreastRange 14–63100NR82NRMammogram±ultrasoundScreening or diagnosisCross-sectional survey
Hafslund232000170NorwayBreastNR100NRNRNRMammogramDiagnosisLongitudinal surveys
Meystre-Agustoni242001887SwitzerlandBreast50–54: 36%
55–59: 22%
60–64: 20%
65–69: 22%
100776227MammogramScreeningLongitudinal surveys
Drossaert2520022657The NetherlandsBreast581007832NRMammogramScreeningLongitudinal surveys
Sandin26‡§2002598SpainBreast511007741NRMammogramScreeningLongitudinal surveys
Brunton272005584New ZealandBreast50–54: 38%
55–59: 35%
60–64: 27%
100NR74<20%MammogramScreeningCross-sectional survey
Geurts282006106The NetherlandsHead and neck5636NR29NRChest X-raySurveillanceCross-sectional survey
Tyndel2920071174UKBreast43100833387MammogramScreeningLongitudinal surveys
Bunge302008324The Netherlands, BelgiumLung6049NRNRNRCTScreeningLongitudinal surveys
Brown Sofair31200847USABreast501003480NRMammogramScreeningLongitudinal surveys
van den Bergh322008324The Netherlands, BelgiumLung6049648266CTScreeningLongitudinal surveys
Westerterp33200882The NetherlandsOesophageal6418NRNRNRCT+PETDiagnosis and stagingCross-sectional survey
Bastiaannet34200959The NetherlandsMelanomaMedian: 59446966NRCT, PET±chest X-rayStagingCross-sectional survey
Vierikko352009601FinlandLung65036NRNRCTScreeningLongitudinal surveys
Bölükbaş36201093TurkeyBreast48100971045MammogramScreening or diagnosisCross-sectional survey
Thompson37201070USALymphomaMedian: 47645397NRCTSurveillanceCross-sectional interview
Hutton382011527UKBreastMedian: 4010079NR75Mammogram±MRIScreeningLongitudinal surveys
Pifarré392011200SpainAny5251NRNR67PET/CTAny (except screening)Cross-sectional interview
Steinemann402011227USABreastNR100NRNRNRMammogramScreening or diagnosisCross-sectional survey
Yu412011398BrazilAny5479565727AnyAny (except screening)Cross-sectional survey
Brédart422012637FranceBreast50100NR87NRMammogram±
ultrasound±MRI
Screening or surveillanceLongitudinal surveys
Hafslund4320124249NorwayBreast58100NR52NRMammogramScreeningCross-sectional survey
Adams(44201436The NetherlandsLymphoma5042NRNRNRCT and MRIStagingCross-sectional survey
Baena-Cañada452014434SpainBreast54100724318MammogramScreeningCross-sectional survey
Andersson462015169SwedenAny64476262100PET/CTAny (except screening)Cross-sectional survey
Elboga472015144TurkeyAny63468352NRPET/CTAny (except screening)Cross-sectional survey
Hobbs48201549AustraliaBreast5510079NR75Mammogram±MRIDiagnosisLongitudinal surveys
Bauml492016103USALungMedian: 67617353NRCT, PET±MRIMonitoringCross-sectional survey
Abreu502017232PortugalAny6151NR7371PET/CTAny (except screening)Longitudinal surveys
Grilo51201781Spain and PortugalAny5553NR4147PET/CTAny (except screening)Longitudinal surveys
Evans522018115UKColorectal or lung6633NRNRNRWhole body MRI, PET+CTStagingLongitudinal surveys
Goense53201827The NetherlandsOesophageal6415NRNRNRMRI+PET/CTStaging and monitoringCross-sectional survey
Hall542018169USALung64515896NRLow-dose CTScreeningCross-sectional survey
Derry55201994USAAny6172NR690AnyMonitoringLongitudinal interview
Soriano56201957USABreast5810093NR0MammogramSurveillanceLongitudinal survey
Taghizadeh5720191237CanadaLung6356NR85NRCTScreeningLongitudinal interview
Bancroft58202088UK and IrelandBreast38615083NRMRIScreeningLongitudinal survey
Grilo59202094PortugalAny6154NR9977PET+bone scanStaging, monitoring and surveillanceLongitudinal survey
Morreale60202087USAGastrointestinal and lung6255NR92NRCT or MRIMonitoringLongitudinal interview
Paiella61202054ItalyPancreatic5061NRNRNRMRI – MRCPScreeningCross-sectional interview
  • All percentages were rounded to the nearest whole number.

  • *Unless otherwise stated.

  • †Demographic data are based on participants who completed the first survey.

  • ‡These studies collected data from other groups who were not included in this review as they did not meet eligibility criteria. This included people having invasive procedures such as fine-needle aspirate or open surgical biopsy,16 33 people with abnormal screening results18 26 29 and people who did not have a scan.18–20 43

  • §Demographics based on the entire population even if not all participants were eligible for this review.

  • ¶Four paediatric participants were included in this study.

  • MRCP, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography; NR, not reported; PET, positron emission tomography.