Table 1

Review criteria

PopulationStudies must examine, trends from birth, 65 years and 85 years. Studies reporting trends from other ages were also reviewed where evidence was available. Studies must examine these trends in whole populations. Studies reporting trends in population subgroups only (ie, only those with heart failure) were ineligible.
ExposureAs this review reports evidence on life expectancy, health expectancy trends, an exposure variable was not required.
ComparatorNot applicable.
Outcome(s)Active life expectancy, healthy life expectancy, disability-free life expectancy, health-related quality adjusted life expectancy, health-adjusted life expectancy. Studies reporting only life expectancy trends were ineligible. Studies must examine changes in these outcomes over time (ie, include more than one time point). Studies that report projections/forecasts of these outcomes were also eligible.
Study designStudies must use an observational design and be carried out in an OECD high-income country. The review focused on evidence from the UK with comparison to evidence from other OECD high-income countries where possible. Studies published from 2016 were eligible. ONS reports were excluded if they were not the latest release, or reported trends for a period contained within a more recent ONS publication using the same data.
  • OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development; ONS, Office of National Statistics.