Table 2

Adjusted HR (95% CI) for T2DM risk according to snoring

T2DM casesPerson-yearsModel 1*Model 2†Model 3‡
Total
 Never snoring396165 551.531.001.001.00
 Occasional snoring24585 252.991.22 (1.04 to 1.43)1.14 (0.97 to 1.34)1.09 (0.92 to 1.28)
 Frequent snoring47999 763.911.96 (1.71 to 2.24)1.76 (1.53 to 2.01)1.64 (1.42 to 1.88)
 Overall1120350 568.431.40 (1.31 to 1.50)1.33 (1.24 to 1.42)1.28 (1.20 to 1.38)
Men
 Never snoring11754 971.301.001.001.00
 Occasional snoring7236 074.220.95 (0.71 to 1.27)0.86 (0.63 to 1.16)0.83 (0.61 to 1.12)
 Frequent snoring19852 739.191.70 (1.35 to 2.13)1.56 (1.24 to 1.96)1.48 (1.17 to 1.87)
 Overall387143 784.711.33 (1.18 to 1.49)1.28 (1.13 to 1.44)1.25 (1.10 to 1.41)
Women
 Never snoring279110 580.231.001.001.00
 Occasional snoring17349 178.771.35 (1.12 to 1.63)1.29 (1.06 to 1.56)1.23 (1.01 to 1.49)
 Frequent snoring28147 024.722.07 (1.75 to 2.44)1.74 (1.47 to 2.06)1.63 (1.37 to 1.94)
 Overall733206 783.721.44 (1.32 to 1.56)1.32 (1.21 to 1.44)1.28 (1.17 to 1.39)
  • *Model 1 adjusted snoring, age and gender.

  • †Model 2 adjusted smoking status, alcohol status, MET, WHR, educational attainment, marital status and household annual income based on model 1.

  • ‡Model 3 adjusted hypertension, diabetes family history and medications for sleep based on model 2.

  • MET, metabolic equivalent task; T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus; WHR, waist-hip ratio.