Table 2

Major adverse events (MAEs) and other adverse events (AEs) (patient level, full analysis population)

Adverse eventTreatment groupORs§ (95% CI)P value
GFC
N=142
UCC
N=139
n*%†(95% CI‡)n*%†(95% CI‡)
MAEs occurring in the first year after surgery
 Any MAE4028.2 (20.9 to 36.3)117.9 (4.0 to 13.7)4.56 (2.23 to 9.34)¶<0.001**
 Delirium1611.3 (6.6 to 17.7)32.2 (0.4 to 6.2)5.76 (1.64 to 20.23)¶0.002**
 Congestive heart failure64.2 (1.6 to 9.0)21.4 (0.2 to 5.1)3.02 (0.53 to 31.02)††0.282‡‡
 Pneumonia139.2 (5.0 to 15.1)42.9 (0.8 to 7.2)3.40 (1.08 to 10.70)¶0.027**
 Deep venous thrombosis32.1 (0.4 to 6.0)10.7 (0.0 to 3.9)2.98 (0.24 to 157.47)††0.622‡‡
 Pulmonary embolism42.8 (0.8 to 7.1)00.0 (0.0 to 2.6)0.122‡‡
 Pressure ulcers (>2 cm in diameter)42.8 (0.8 to 7.1)21.4 (0.2 to 5.1)1.99 (0.28 to 22.24)††0.684‡‡
 Myocardial infarction32.1 (0.4 to 6.0)00.0 (0.0 to 2.6)0.247‡‡
MAEs occurring during the stay in the orthopaedics/ trauma unit
 Any MAE2114.8 (9.4 to 21.7)75.0 (2.0 to 10.1)3.27 (1.34 to 7.97)¶0.006**
 Delirium149.9 (5.5 to 16.0)32.2 (0.4 to 6.2)4.96 (1.39 to 17.66)¶0.007**
 Congestive heart failure21.4 (0.2 to 5.0)10.7 (0.0 to 3.9)1.97 (0.10 to 117.14)††1.000‡‡
 Pneumonia32.1 (0.4 to 6.0)10.7 (0.0 to 3.9)2.98 (0.24 to 157.47)††0.622‡‡
 Deep venous thrombosis00.0 (0.0 to 2.6)10.7 (0.0 to 3.9)0.00 (0.00 to 18.60)††0.495‡‡
 Pulmonary embolism21.4 (0.2 to 5.0)00.0 (0.0 to 2.6)0.498‡‡
 Pressure ulcers (>2 cm in diameter)00.0 (0.0 to 2.6)10.7 (0.0 to 3.9)0.00 (0.00 to 18.60)††0.495‡‡
 Myocardial infarction21.4 (0.2 to 5.0)00.0 (0.0 to 2.6)0.498‡‡
Adverse events other than MAEs occurring in the first year after surgery
 Any AE7955.6 (47.1 to 64.0)6345.3 (36.9 to 54.0)1.51 (0.95 to 2.42)¶0.084**
 Surgical adverse events64.2 (1.6 to 9.0)75.0 (2.0 to 10.1)0.83 (0.27 to 2.54)¶0.746**
 Medical adverse events3524.6 (17.8 to 32.6)2316.5 (10.8 to 23.8)1.65 (0.92 to 2.97)¶0.093**
 Other AEs6143.0 (34.7 to 51.5)4834.5 (26.7 to 43.1)1.43 (0.88 to 2.31)¶0.147**
Adverse events other than MAEs occurring during the stay in the orthopaedics/ trauma unit
 Any AE4128.9 (21.6 to 37.1)3323.7 (16.9 to 31.7)1.30 (0.76 to 2.22)¶0.329**
 Surgical adverse events10.7 (0.0 to 3.9)00.0 (0.0 to 2.6)1.000‡‡
 Medical adverse events2215.5 (10.0 to 22.5)117.9 (4.0 to 13.7)2.13 (0.99 to 4.59)¶0.048**
 Other AEs117.7 (3.9 to 13.4)2014.4 (9.0 to 21.3)0.50 (0.23 to 1.09)¶0.076**
  • *Number of patients with at least one AE. If a patient experienced multiple AEs under the same AE class, the patient was only counted once.

  • †Estimated risk of developing at least one AE (calculated by dividing the number of patients experiencing at least one AE by the total number of patients).

  • ‡CIs for percentages were calculated using the exact method (Clopper Pearson method).

  • §OR comparing geriatric fracture centre (GFC) against usual care centre (UCC).

  • ¶Confidence intervals were calculated using the Wald method.

  • **χ2 test.

  • ††CIs were calculated using the exact method.

  • ‡‡Fisher’s exact test.