Table 4

Regression models showing associations between non-modifiable explanatory variables and depression, anxiety and stress scores

n=681B95% CI lower95% CI upperβP value
PHQ-9 total score§
 Age (per decade)−0.25−0.31−0.19−0.33p<0.0001‡
 Female0.18−0.100.460.050.20
 Live alone0.16−0.130.460.040.28
 BAME background−0.17−0.430.09−0.050.19
 Keyworker0.06−0.130.240.020.54
COVID-19 risk status¶
 Most at risk0.470.110.820.10p<0.05*
 Increased risk0.07−0.210.340.020.62
Adjusted R2=0.10
GAD-7 total score§
 Age (per decade)−0.22−0.28−0.17−0.30 p<0.0001‡
 Female0.21−0.070.480.06 0.14
 Live alone0.13−0.160.420.03 0.39
 BAME background−0.10−0.350.15−0.03 0.45
 Keyworker0.01−0.170.180.00 0.96
COVID-19 risk status¶
 Most at risk0.470.120.810.10 p<0.01†
 Increased risk0.19−0.080.460.05 0.17
Adjusted R2=0.080
PSS-4 total score
 Age (per decade)−0.63−0.78−0.47−0.31p<0.0001‡
 Female0.43−0.311.170.040.25
 Live alone0.73−0.061.510.070.07
 BAME background0.06−0.620.740.010.86
 Keyworker0.40−0.080.880.060.10
COVID-19 risk status¶
 Most at risk1.250.322.190.10p<0.01†
 Increased risk0.740.011.470.08p<0.05*
Adjusted R2=0.09
  • *p<0.05.

  • †p<0.01.

  • ‡p<0.0001.

  • §Square root transformation.

  • ¶Comparison reference group: neither category.

  • BAME, black, Asian and minority ethnic; GAD-7, 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder; PHQ-9, 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire ; PSS-4, 4-item Perceived Stress Scale.