Table 6

Regression models showing associations between modifiable explanatory variables and anxiety scores

GAD-7 total score§Regression coefficient B95% CI lower95% CI upperβP value
Loneliness, positive mood, perceived risk and worry
 Age (per decade)−0.10−0.14−0.06−0.14p<0.0001‡
 Live alone−0.03−0.250.18−0.010.75
 BAME background−0.00−0.180.18−0.000.97
COVID-19 risk status§
 Most at risk0.21−0.040.460.050.10
 Increased risk0.07−
 Perceived loneliness (per unit)<0.0001‡
 Positive mood (per unit)−0.13−0.15−0.12−0.55p<0.0001‡
 Perceived risk of COVID-19 (per unit)−0.01−0.060.03−0.020.52
COVID-19 worry**
 Much of the time0.420.130.700.08p<0.01†
 Most of the time0.27−0.290.820.030.35
Adjusted R2=0.54, n=657
Health behaviours
 Age (per decade)−0.21−0.27−0.15−0.29p<0.0001‡
 Live alone0.12−0.160.410.030.39
 BAME background−0.09−0.340.16−0.030.48
COVID-19 risk status¶
 Most at risk0.29−0.060.630.060.11
 Increased risk0.19−0.080.460.050.16
 Pet ownership−0.24−0.42−0.06−0.10p<0.01†
 Smoker (yes/no)0.420.030.810.08p<0.05*
 Every day−0.83−1.24−0.42−0.34p<0.0001‡
 2–3 times a week−0.73−1.14−0.31−0.28p<0.01†
 Once a week−0.66−1.13−0.20−0.17p<0.01†
 Less than once a week−0.39−0.860.07−0.100.10
Alcohol consumption‡‡
 4–6 times a week0.340.050.630.10p<0.05*
 1–3 times a week0.16−0.060.380.060.16
 Less than once a week0.310.040.580.09p<0.05*
Adjusted R2=0.13, n=681
  • *p<0.05.

  • †p<0.01.

  • ‡p<0.0001.

  • §Square root of total score.

  • ¶Comparison reference group: neither category.

  • **Comparison reference group: ‘I occasionally worry about getting COVID-19’.

  • ††Comparison reference group: never exercise.

  • ‡‡Comparison reference group: never consume alcohol.

  • BAME, black, Asian and minority ethnic; GAD-7, 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder.