Table 3

Arithmetic mean OOPs by health category and questionnaire version

Questionnaire V.1Questionnaire V.2Questionnaire V.3
11 disaggregated health items44 disaggregated health items56 disaggregated health items
Spending categoryNo of health items aggregatedNhousehold average OOPs (Ghc)SDNumber of health items aggregatedNhousehold average OOPs (Ghc)SDEstimated ratio of the means (V.2/V.1) (95% CI)Number of health items aggregatedNhousehold average OOPs (Ghc)SDEstimated ratio of the means (V.3/V.1) (95% CI)
Outpatient2816413512181431300.70 (0.20 to 1.21)1210544780.75 (0.27 to 1.22)
Inpatient2171319527141773988091.25 (0.75 to 1.74)141932877160.92 (0.51 to 1.34)
Medicines248741140956029780.71 (0.44 to 0.98)1660929760.66 (0.44 to 0.88)
Preventive care2137599559234530.60 (0.33 to 0.87)54631440.57 (0.27 to 0.88)
Other medical services18203201251132170.56 (-)221240.06 (-)
Health products236711332251602502.38 (-)7181652322.32 (-)
  • Note: the currency used is the GHC. US GHC4.2 was equivalent to US$1 at the time of collecting data.

  • GHC, Ghana cedi; OOP, out-of-pocket.