Table 2

Characteristics of included studies (n=58)

CharacteristicsN (%)
Continent
 North America36 (62)
 Europe13 (22)
 Asia7 (12)
 Africa2 (3)
Year of publication
 2010–202044 (76)
 2000–200912 (21)
 1996–19992 (3)
Study design
 Cohort/longitudinal41 (71)
 Quasi-experimental*10 (17)
 Cross-sectional7 (12)
Sample size
 ≥10 00019 (33)
 1000–<10 00010 (17)
 ≤100024 (41)
 Not specified5 (9)
Exposure life stage
 Pregnancy/childhood24 (41)
 Adulthood34 (57)
Outcome life stage
 Pregnancy2 (3)
 Childhood†8 (13)
 Adult47 (81)
Disaster
 Human-made23 (40)
 Natural35 (60)
Cardiometabolic outcome‡
 Cardiovascular disease§41 (71)
 Diabetes¶11 (19)
 Obesity or BMI12 (21)
 Mortality from cardiovascular disease9 (16)
 Cardiometabolic risk during pregnancy**2 (3)
  • *Includes pre/post-study design, time-series and natural experiments.

  • †Children defined as ≤18 years of age.

  • ‡Does not equal to 100% as studies report multiple cardiometabolic outcomes.

  • §Includes hypertension, coronary artery disease/heart disease, angina, heart attack/myocardial infarction, metabolic syndrome, cardiac disease-related blood markers, stroke.

  • ¶Diabetes, blood glucose, metabolic syndrome.

  • **Gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia.

  • BMI, body mass index.