Table 7

Regression models showing associations between modifiable explanatory variables and stress scores

PSS-4 total scoreRegression coefficient B95% CI lower95% CI upperβP value
Loneliness, positive mood, perceived risk and worry
 Age (per decade)−0.28−0.39−0.17−0.14p<0.0001§
 Female0.710.181.240.07p<0.01†
 Live alone0.34−0.210.900.030.23
 BAME background0.43−0.050.900.050.08
 Keyworker0.22−0.120.560.030.21
COVID-19 risk status¶
 Most at risk0.690.031.360.05p<0.05*
 Increased risk0.530.011.040.15p<0.05*
 Perceived loneliness (per unit)0.180.110.25−0.61p<0.0001§
 Positive mood (per unit)−0.40−0.44−0.36−0.61p<0.0001§
 Perceived risk of COVID-19 (per unit)0.120.010.230.06p<0.05*
COVID-19 worry**
 Never0.22−0.150.580.030.24
 Much of the time0.06−0.690.810.010.87
 Most of the time0.49−0.971.950.020.51
Adjusted R2=0.58, n=657
Health behaviours
 Age (per decade)−0.57−0.74−0.41−0.28p<0.0001§
 Female0.52−0.221.250.050.17
 Live alone0.65−0.131.420.060.10
 BAME background−0.07−0.760.61−0.010.84
 Keyworker0.510.030.990.08p<0.05*
COVID-19 risk status¶
 Most at risk0.83−0.101.770.070.08
 Increased risk0.66−0.071.380.070.08
 Pet ownership−0.39−0.880.09−0.060.11
 Smoker (yes/no)0.65−0.421.720.040.23
Exercise††
 Every day−2.76−3.87−1.65−0.42p<0.0001§
 2–3 times a week−2.59−3.71−1.47−0.36p<0.0001§
 Once a week−1.72−2.990.45−0.16p<0.01†
 Less than once a week−1.70−2.97−0.43−0.16p<0.01†
Alcohol consumption‡‡
 Daily0.25−0.651.160.020.59
 4–6 times a week0.04−0.750.830.000.93
 1–3 times a week−0.27−0.870.33−0.040.38
 Less than once a week0.15−0.600.890.020.70
Adjusted R2=0.13, n=681
  • *p<0.05.

  • †p<0.01.

  • ‡p<0.001.

  • §P<0.0001.

  • ¶Comparison reference group: neither category.

  • **Comparison reference group ‘I occasionally worry about getting COVID-19’.

  • ††Comparison reference group: never exercise.

  • ‡‡Comparison reference group: never consume alcohol.

  • BAME, black, Asian and minority ethnic; PSS-4, 4-item Perceived Stress Scale.