Table 5

Regression models showing associations between modifiable explanatory variables and depression scores

PHQ-9 total score§Regression coefficient B95% CI lower95% CI upperβP value
Loneliness, positive mood, perceived risk and worry
 Age (per decade)−0.12−0.16−0.08−0.16p<0.0001‡
 Live alone−0.02−0.230.20−0.000.88
 BAME background−0.04−0.230.14−0.010.65
COVID-19 risk status¶
 Most at risk0.310.050.560.06p<0.05*
 Increased risk−0.03−0.220.17−0.010.80
 Perceived loneliness (per unit)<0.0001‡
 Positive mood (per unit)−0.15−0.16−0.13−0.58p<0.0001‡
 Perceived risk of COVID-19 (per unit)−0.03−0.070.01−0.040.17
COVID-19 worry**
 Much of the time0.22−0.070.510.040.13
 Most of the time0.23−0.340.790.020.43
Adjusted R2=0.56, n=657
Health behaviours
 Age (per decade)−0.22−0.28−0.16−0.29p<0.0001‡
 Live alone0.15−0.150.440.040.33
 BAME background−0.20−0.460.06−0.060.13
COVID-19 risk status¶
 Most at risk0.27−0.080.620.060.13
 Increased risk0.04−0.230.310.010.79
 Pet ownership−0.25−0.43−0.07−0.10p<0.01†
 Smoker (yes/no)0.36−0.040.770.070.08
 Every day−0.82−1.24−0.41−0.33p<0.0001‡
 2–3 times a week−0.73−1.15−0.31−0.27p<0.01†
 Once a week−0.33−0.810.14−0.080.17
 Less than once a week−0.21−0.680.27−0.050.40
Alcohol consumption‡‡
 4–6 times a week0.00−0.290.300.000.98
 1–3 times a week−0.01−0.240.22−0.000.93
 Less than once a week0.23−0.050.510.070.11
Adjusted R2=0.15, n=681
  • *p<0.05.

  • †p<0.01.

  • ‡p<0.0001.

  • §Square root of total score.

  • ¶Comparison reference group: neither category.

  • **Comparison reference group: ‘I occasionally worry about getting COVID-19’.

  • ††Comparison reference group: never exercise.

  • ‡‡Comparison reference group: never consume alcohol.

  • BAME, black, Asian and minority ethnic; PHQ-9, 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire .