Table 1

General characteristics of included clinical practice guidelines (n=12)

NumberAuthor (year)Full titleCountries coveredOriginPrimary audienceDesign (systematic review, SR, used and methods thereafter)Planned update givenFunding
1Coleman et al (2012)30Standards of care for the health of transsexual, transgender and gender non-conforming people V.7GlobalWPATHHealth professionalsWork groups submit manuscripts based on prior literature reviews, no explicit links of recommendations to evidence, expert consensus. No independent external reviewNoTawani Foundation and gift from anonymous donor
2Davies et al (2015)51Voice and communication change for gender non-conforming individuals: giving voice to the person insideGlobalWPATHSpeech-language therapistsReview of evidence. Expert consensus. No independent external reviewNoTransgender Health Information Program of British Columbia Canada
3ECDC (2018)58Public health guidance on HIV, hepatitis B and C testing in the EU/EEAEU/EEAECDC consortium CHIP, PHE, SSAT and EATGMember states’ public health professionals who coordinate the development of national guidelines or programmes for HBV, HCV and HIV testingFour SRs, SIGN, NICE and AXIS checklists. Ad hoc internal and external expert panel, independent chair, expert consensus. No independent external reviewNoCommissioned by ECDC, contractor Rigshospitalet CHIP
4Gilligan et al (2017)52Patient-clinician communication: American Society of Clinical Oncology consensus guidelineUSA and othersASCOClinicians who care for adults with cancerNine questions (one SR), expert consensus and a Delphi exercise. No independent external reviewRegular review 3-year checkNone declared
5Hembree et al (2017)53Endocrine treatment of gender-dysphoric/gender-incongruent persons: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guidelineGlobalEndocrine SocietyEndocrinologists, trained mental health professionals and trained physiciansTwo SRs and GRADE, rest expert consensus. No independent external reviewNoEndocrine Society
6IAPHCCO (2015)54IAPAC guidelines for optimising the HIV care continuum for adults and adolescentsGlobalIAPACCare providers, programme managers, policymakers, affected communities, organisations, and health systems involved with implementing HIV programmes and/or delivering HIV careA systematic search of CDC database, expert consensus. No independent external reviewNoIAPAC, US NIH and Office of AIDS Research
7Ralph et al (2010)56Trauma, gender reassignment and penile augmentationNot specified (international publication)Author groupNot stated (urological surgeons)No SR. Unclear if literature review. Leading experts’ consensus opinion. No independent external reviewNoNone declared
8Strang et al (2018)57Initial clinical guidelines for co-occurring autism spectrum disorder and gender dysphoria or incongruence in adolescentsNot specified (international publication)Author groupCliniciansNo SR or literature review. Two-stage Delphi consensus. No independent external reviewNoIsadore and Bertha Gudelsky Family Foundation
9T'Sjoen et al (2020)55ESSM Position Statement ‘Assessment and hormonal management in adolescent and adult trans people, with attention for sexual function and satisfaction’EuropeESSMEuropean clinicians working in transgender health, sexologists and other healthcare professionalsNo SR. Leading experts’ consensus opinion. No independent external reviewNoESSM
10WHO (2011)48Prevention and treatment of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among men who have sex with men and transgender people. Recommendations for a public health approachGlobalWHONational public health officials and managers of HIV/AIDS and STI programmes, NGOs including community and civil society organisations, and health workers13 SRs for PICOs and GRADE, external GDG, and independent external reviewYes in 2015BMZ and PEPFAR through CDC and USAID
11WHO (2012)49Guidance on oral pre-exposure prophylaxis for serodiscordant couples, men and transgender women who have sex with men at high risk of HIV. Recommendations for use in the context of demonstration projectsGlobalWHOCountries/member statesFour SRs (including values and preferences reviews) and GRADE, external GDG and independent external review groupYes in 2015Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
12WHO (2016)50Consolidated guidelines on HIV prevention, diagnosis, treatment and care for key populations. 2016 updateGlobalWHONational HIV programme managers and other decision-makers within ministries of health and those responsible for health policies, programmes and services in prisonsTwo new SRs in revised guidance, GRADE, external GDGs and 79 independent external peer reviewersRegular updates; no detailUNAIDS, PEPFAR, Global Fund
  • AACE, American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists; ASA, American Society of Andrology; ASCO, American Society of Clinical Oncology; ASD, autism spectrum disorder; AXIS, Appraisal Tool for Cross-Sectional Studies; BMZ, German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development; CDC, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; CHIP, CHIP/Region H, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen; CPG, clinical practice guideline; EATG, European AIDS Treatment Group; EAU, European Association of Urology; ECDC, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control; ESE, European Society of Endocrinology; ESPE, European Society for Pediatric Endocrinology; ESSM, European Society for Sexual Medicine; EU/EEA, European Union/European Economic Area; GDG, guideline development group; Global Fund, Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria; GRADE, Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation; HBV, hepatitis B virus; HCV, hepatitis C virus; IAPAC, International Association of Providers of AIDS Care; IAPHCCO, International Advisory Panel on HIV Care Continuum Optimization; NGO, non-governmental organisations; NICE, National Institute of Health and Care Excellence; NIH, National Institutes of Health; PEPFAR, US President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief; PES, Pediatric Endocrine Society; PHE, Public Health England; PICO, Participants/patients, Intervention, Comparators, Outcomes; SIGN, Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network; SR, systematic review; SSAT, St Stephen’s AIDS Trust; STI, sexually transmitted infection; UNAIDS, The Unified Budget, Results and Accountability Framework of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS; USAID, US Agency for International Development; WPATH, World Professional Association for Transgender Health.