Table 3

Stratified analysis of neighbourhood walkability quintiles and material deprivation—ages 20–64 years

Adjusted
HR
Dpr 1
Adjusted p valueAdjusted
HR
Dpr 2
Adjusted p valueAdjusted
HR
Dpr 3
Adjusted p valueAdjusted
HR
Dpr 4
Adjusted p valueAdjusted
HR
Dpr 5
Adjusted p value
Sex
 Male1.00 (–)1.00 (–)1.00 (–)1.00 (–)1.00 (–)
 Female1.04 (0.92 to 1.19)0.51541.13 (0.97 to 1.32)0.11071.10 (0.95 to 1.28)0.19911.13 (0.96 to 1.33)0.13221.16 (0.99 to 1.36)0.0701
Age, years
 20–341.00 (–)1.00 (–)1.00 (–)1.00 (–)1.00 (–)
 35–491.55 (1.31 to 1.84)<0.00011.98 (1.65 to 2.38)<0.00011.44 (1.19 to 1.73)0.00011.58 (1.31 to 1.91)<0.00011.69 (1.41 to 2.02)<0.0001
 50–642.83 (2.36 to 3.39)<0.00013.14 (2.54 to 3.88)<0.00012.43 (1.98 to 2.99)<0.00012.78 (2.16 to 3.56)<0.00012.71 (2.15 to 3.42)<0.0001
Education
 Less than high school1.00 (–)1.00 (–)1.00 (–)1.00 (–)1.00 (–)
 High school completed0.90 (0.56 to 1.45)0.67210.72 (0.44 to 1.19)0.19610.65 (0.44 to 0.96)0.02860.67 (0.47 to 0.97)0.03351.02 (0.73 to 1.42)0.9154
 Some post-secondary0.89 (0.55 to 1.44)0.63740.57 (0.33 to 0.98)0.04310.51 (0.33 to 0.80)0.00360.63 (0.40 to 0.98)0.04001.23 (0.81 to 1.86)0.3305
 Post-secondary completed0.81 (0.54 to 1.23)0.32340.70 (0.44 to 1.13)0.14860.55 (0.40 to 0.74)0.00010.72 (0.51 to 1.01)0.05651.20 (0.89 to 1.61)0.2416
Income group
 0–$C19 9990.59 (0.40 to 0.89)0.01080.95 (0.61 to 1.47)0.82090.73 (0.50 to 1.06)0.10091.02 (0.72 to 1.45)0.92700.99 (0.71 to 1.40)0.9693
 $C20 000–$C39 9990.84 (0.60 to 1.18)0.31511.04 (0.76 to 1.41)0.81810.65 (0.47 to 0.89)0.00700.99 (0.72 to 1.34)0.92831.05 (0.77 to 1.41)0.7733
 $C40 000–$C59 9990.93 (0.71 to 1.22)0.61791.12 (0.87 to 1.45)0.37970.90 (0.69 to 1.18)0.44291.41 (1.06 to 1.87)0.01861.28 (0.95 to 1.72)0.0997
 $C60 000–$C79 9990.82 (0.68 to 0.98)0.03111.07 (0.87 to 1.32)0.53381.02 (0.81 to 1.29)0.83461.06 (0.82 to 1.38)0.64931.04 (0.79 to 1.37)0.7925
 $C80 000+1.00 (–)1.00 (–)1.00 (–)1.00 (–)1.00 (–)
Marital status
 Married/common law1.00 (–)1.00 (–)1.00 (–)1.00 (–)1.00 (–)
 Widow/separated/divorced1.26 (1.01 to 1.56)0.04041.14 (0.88 to 1.48)0.32021.23 (0.94 to 1.60)0.13490.89 (0.68 to 1.15)0.37741.03 (0.79 to 1.34)0.8293
 Single0.93 (0.76 to 1.14)0.46901.02 (0.84 to 1.24)0.80480.95 (0.79 to 1.15)0.61560.91 (0.74 to 1.12)0.35870.99 (0.83 to 1.18)0.8996
Smoker type
 Regular/former1.19 (1.04 to 1.37)0.01050.91 (0.78 to 1.06)0.23461.15 (0.99 to 1.33)0.06470.93 (0.79 to 1.10)0.41291.13 (0.96 to 1.32)0.1402
 Occasional/non-smoker1.00 (–)1.00 (–)1.00 (–)1.00 (–)1.00 (–)
Physical activity
 Active1.00 (–)1.00 (–)1.00 (–)1.00 (–)1.00 (–)
 Inactive1.02 (0.90 to 1.17)0.73770.93 (0.80 to 1.07)0.29670.96 (0.83 to 1.12)0.63291.04 (0.89 to 1.22)0.60041.09 (0.92 to 1.28)0.3253
Life stress
 None/low stress1.00 (–)1.00 (–)1.00 (–)1.00 (–)1.00 (–)
 High stress0.86 (0.63 to 1.17)0.34541.10 (0.67 to 1.81)0.71011.31 (0.93 to 1.85)0.12720.65 (0.44 to 0.96)0.02851.63 (1.14 to 2.33)0.0078
Self-perceived health
 Excellent1.00 (–)1.00 (–)1.00 (–)1.00 (–)1.00 (–)
 Very good1.11 (0.95 to 1.30)0.19561.45 (1.21 to 1.73)<0.00011.05 (0.87 to 1.26)0.61741.33 (1.10 to 1.62)0.00390.96 (0.79 to 1.17)0.6791
 Good1.39 (1.17 to 1.66)0.00031.49 (1.21 to 1.85)0.00021.46 (1.17 to 1.81)0.00071.39 (1.12 to 1.73)0.00281.22 (0.99 to 1.50)0.0576
 Fair2.47 (1.75 to 3.47)<0.00011.87 (1.24 to 2.84)0.00322.08 (1.52 to 2.83)<0.00012.07 (1.45 to 2.96)<0.00011.57 (1.12 to 2.18)0.0082
 Poor2.44 (1.06 to 5.63)0.03681.74 (0.74 to 4.07)0.20131.88 (0.92 to 3.82)0.08162.45 (0.97 to 6.18)0.05811.41 (0.80 to 2.48)0.2370
Neighbourhood walkability
 Q1 (least walkable)1.10 (0.88 to 1.36)0.40521.35 (1.05 to 1.74)0.01881.32 (0.99 to 1.75)0.05690.96 (0.75 to 1.24)0.77491.02 (0.75 to 1.41)0.8802
 21.05 (0.84 to 1.32)0.67491.41 (1.08 to 1.84)0.01121.22 (0.93 to 1.59)0.14311.07 (0.84 to 1.37)0.57751.11 (0.84 to 1.46)0.4691
 31.00 (0.77 to 1.29)0.97551.21 (0.92 to 1.60)0.16751.30 (0.98 to 1.74)0.06810.89 (0.69 to 1.14)0.34161.18 (0.94 to 1.49)0.1456
 41.05 (0.79 to 1.40)0.71791.13 (0.86 to 1.49)0.39031.34 (1.03 to 1.75)0.03221.00 (0.78 to 1.27)0.96931.04 (0.82 to 1.32)0.7367
 Q5 (most walkable)1.00 (–)1.00 (–)1.00 (–)1.00 (–)1.00 (–)
  • Dpr, deprivation.