Table 2

HR of neighbourhood walkability quintiles—ages 20–64 years

Unadjusted HRUnadjusted p valueAdjusted HRAdjusted p value
Sex
 Male1.00 (–)1.00 (–)
 Female1.13 (1.06 to 1.20)<0.00011.12 (1.05 to 1.20)0.0011
Age, years
 20–341.00 (–)1.00 (–)
 35–491.70 (1.58 to 1.83)<0.00011.63 (1.50 to 1.76)<0.0001
 50–642.97 (2.73 to 3.23)<0.00012.78 (2.53 to 3.06)<0.0001
Education
 Less than high school1.00 (–)1.00 (–)
 High school completed0.80 (0.68 to 0.94)0.00790.82 (0.69 to 0.98)0.0287
 Some post-secondary0.69 (0.57 to 0.84)0.00020.79 (0.64 to 0.97)0.0245
 Post-secondary completed0.71 (0.62 to 0.82)<0.00010.82 (0.71 to 0.96)0.0130
Income group
 0–$C19 9991.02 (0.89 to 1.18)0.75230.85 (0.73 to 0.99)0.0321
 $C20 000–$C39 9991.00 (0.89 to 1.12)0.97510.89 (0.79 to 1.01)0.0690
 $C40 000–$C59 9991.24 (1.11 to 1.37)<0.00011.12 (1.00 to 1.25)0.0578
 $C60 000–$C79 9991.15 (1.06 to 1.24)0.00080.98 (0.89 to 1.08)0.7107
 $C80 000+1.00 (–)1.00 (–)
Marital status
 Married/common law1.00 (–)1.00 (–)
 Widow/separated/divorced1.24 (1.12 to 1.37)<0.00011.08 (0.97 to 1.21)0.1780
 Single0.62 (0.58 to 0.67)<0.00010.96 (0.88 to 1.05)0.3556
Smoker type
 Regular/former1.14 (1.07 to 1.21)<0.00011.05 (0.99 to 1.13)0.1188
 Occasional/non-smoker1.00 (–)1.00 (–)
Physical activity
 Active1.00 (–)1.00 (–)
 Inactive1.13 (1.06 to 1.20)0.00011.01 (0.95 to 1.08)0.7533
Life stress
 None/low stress1.00 (–)1.00 (–)
 High stress1.26 (1.07 to 1.47)0.00441.09 (0.92 to 1.30)0.3210
Self-perceived health
 Excellent1.00 (–)1.00 (–)
 Very good1.11 (1.03 to 1.20)0.00701.15 (1.06 to 1.26)0.0009
 Good1.34 (1.23 to 1.46)<0.00011.37 (1.25 to 1.50)<0.0001
 Fair2.08 (1.78 to 2.42)<0.00011.94 (1.65 to 2.28)<0.0001
 Poor2.11 (1.56 to 2.85)<0.00011.82 (1.32 to 2.51)0.0003
CCHS cycles
 Years (2000–2012)0.91 (0.90 to 0.93)<0.00010.90 (0.88 to 0.93)<0.0001
Walkability Index (DA-lvl)
 Q1 (least walkable)1.20 (1.08 to 1.35)0.00101.14 (1.02 to 1.28)0.0230
 21.19 (1.07 to 1.34)0.00211.13 (1.00 to 1.27)0.0450
 31.20 (1.07 to 1.35)0.00141.08 (0.96 to 1.21)0.1980
 41.13 (1.00 to 1.27)0.04141.07 (0.95 to 1.21)0.2689
 Q5 (most walkable)1.00 (–)1.00 (–)
  • CCHS, Canadian Community Health Survey.