Table 2

Evidence of organ impairment in 201 low-risk individuals with post-COVID-19 syndrome

MeasurementAll patients (N=201)Healthy controls (n=36)P valueNot hospitalised (n=163)Hospitalised (n=37)P valueModerate PCS (n=77)Severe PCS (n=116)P value
Heart
Left ventricular ejection fraction (%)
 Normal (>51%)190 (95.0)35 (97.2)0.699155 (95.7)33 (89.1)0.12472 (93.5)111 (95.7)0.353
 Impaired (≤51%)11 (5.0)1 (2.8)7 (4.3)4 (10.1)5 (6.4)5 (4.3)
Left ventricular end diastolic volume (mL)
 >264 mL in Men; >206 mL in Women8 (4.0)1 (2.8)1.004 (2.5)4 (10.8)0.0404 (5.2)4 (3.4)0.715
Evidence of myocarditis
 ≥3 segments with high T1 (≥1229 ms at 3T; ≥1015 ms at 1.5T)39 (19.4)2 (5.6)0.05330 (18.4)8 (21.6)0.6479 (11.7)29 (25.0)0.027
Lungs
 Deep breathing fractional area change(n=17 missing)(n=13 missing)(n=3 missing)(n=8 missing)(n=7 missing)
 <31%21 (11.4)1 (2.8)0.13817 (11.3)4 (11.8)17 (10.1)13 (11.9)0.811
 Kidneys
 Kidney cortex T1(n=3 missing)(n=3 missing)(n=2 missing)
 Normal (<1652 ms at 3T; <1227 ms at 1.5T)191 (96.5)36 (100.0)0.599155 (96.9)35 (94.6)0.61874 (98.7)112 (96.6)0.65
 Impaired (≥1652 ms at 3T; ≥1227 ms at 1.5T)7 (3.5)0 (0.0)5 (3.1)2 (5.4)1 (1.3)4 (3.4)
Pancreas
 Pancreatic inflammation (T1 in ms)(n=11 missing)(n=13 missing)(n=7 missing)(n=4 missing)(n=4 missing)(n=6 missing)
 Normal <803 ms162 (85.3)23 (100.0)0.049139 (89.1)22 (66.7)0.00260 (82.2)95 (86.4)0.530
 Impaired ≥803 ms28 (14.7)0 (0)17 (10.9)11 (33.3)13 (17.8)15 (13.6)
 Pancreatic fat(n=4 missing)
 Normal <4.6%122 (62.2)30 (93.8)<0.001107 (66.9)14 (40.0)0.00444 (57.9)72 (63.7)0.449
 Impaired ≥4.6%74 (37.8)2 (6.2)53 (33.1)21 (60.0)32 (42.1)41 (36.3)
Liver
 Liver inflammation (cT1 in ms)(n=1 missing)(n=1 missing)(n=1 missing)
 Normal <784 ms177 (88.5)36 (100)0.030148 (91.4)28 (75.7)0.01869 (90.8)101 (87.1)0.494
 Impaired ≥784 ms23 (11.5)0 (0)14 (8.6)9 (24.3)7 (9.2)15 (12.9)
 Liver fat
 Normal <4.8%159 (79.1)34 (94.4)0.034134 (82.2)24 (64.9)0.02661 (79.2)91 (78.4)1
 Impaired ≥4.8%42 (20.9)2 (5.4)29 (17.8)13 (35.1)16 (20.8)25 (21.6)
 Liver volume(n=1 missing)
 Normal <1935 mL180 (89.6)34 (97.1)0.214154 (94.5)25 (67.6)<0.000168 (88.3)104 (89.7)0.816
 Impaired ≥1935 mL21 (10.4)1 (2.9)9 (5.5)12 (32.4)9 (11.7)12 (10.3)
Spleen
 Splenic volume (mL)(n=1 missing)
 Normal <350 mL194 (96.5)32 (91.4)0.172160 (98.2)33 (89.2)0.02374 (96.1)112 (96.6)1
 Impaired ≥350 mL7 (3.5)3 (8.6)3 (1.8)4 (10.8)3 (3.9)4 (3.4)
  • Data are presented as count (%).

  • Comparisons between managed at home versus hospitalised and between moderate versus PCS were conducted using Fisher’s exact test.

  • PCS, post-COVID-19 syndrome.