Table 1

Baseline demographics and symptoms of 201 low-risk individuals with post-COVID-19 syndrome

All patients (N=201)Healthy controls (n=36)P valueNot hospitalised (n=163)Hospitalised (n=37)P valueModerate PCS (n=77)Severe PCS (n=116)P value
Age (years), mean (SD)44 (11.0)39 (12.4)0.01343 (10.9)50 (10.0)0.00145 (12.2)44 (10.0)0.419
Female, n (%)142 (70.6)14 (38.9)0.032118 (72.4)23 (62.2)0.30251 (66.2)85 (73.3)0.374
BMI (kg/m2), median (IQR)25.7 (22.7–28.1)23.2 (21.4–23.1)<0.00125.3 (22.7–27.7)27.2 (23.1–31.0)0.06325.8 (22.7–27.9)25.4 (22.5–28.2)0.639
Ethnicity
 White176 (87.6)33 (91.7)148 (90.8)28 (75.7)67 (87.0)106 (91.4)0.178
 Mixed3 (1.5)0 (0)0.9043 (1.8)0 (0)0.0161 (1.3)2 (1.7)
 South Asian7 (3.5)3 (8.3)4 (2.5)3 (8.1)5 (6.5)0 (0)
 Black4 (2.0)0 (0)1 (0.6)2 (5.4)2 (2.6)2 (1.7)
Comorbidities and risks
 Smoking0.244
 Never133 (66.2)20 (60.6)108 (66.3)24 (64.9)55 (71.4)72 (61.7)
 Current6 (3.0)8 (24.2)<0.0016 (3.7)0 (0)0.6413 (3.9)3 (2.6)
 Ex-smoker62 (30.8)5 (15.2)49 (30.1)13 (35.1)19 (24.7)41 (35.3)
 Healthcare worker64 (31.8)4 (12.1)0.00950 (30.7)13 (35.1)0.69533 (42.9)28 (24.1)0.007
 Asthma37 (18.4)0 (0)0.00234 (20.9)3 (8.1)0.09913 (16.9)22 (19.0)0.849
BMI
 ≥25 kg/m2113 (56.5)7 (20)87 (53.7)25 (67.6)0.14446 (60.5)62 (53.4)0.374
 ≥30 kg/m240 (20.0)0 (0)28 (17.3)12 (32.4)0.06616 (21.1)24 (20.7)1.000
 Hypertension13 (6.5)0 (0)0.00111 (6.7)2 (5.4)1.0006 (7.8)7 (6.0)0.771
 Diabetes4 (2.0)0 (0)0.1044 (2.5)0 (0.0)1.0004 (5.2)0 (0.0)0.024
 Previous heart disease9 (4.5)0 (0)0.0018 (4.9)1 (2.7)1.0003 (3.9)5 (4.3)1.000
Symptoms
 Fatigue196 (98.0)159 (97.5)37 (100.0)1.00073 (96.1)115 (99.1)0.302
 Shortness of breath176 (88.0)141 (86.5)35 (94.6)0.26258 (76.3)112 (96.6)<0.0001
 Muscle ache173 (86.5)142 (87.1)31 (83.8)0.59766 (86.8)101 (87.1)1.000
 Headache165 (82.5)138 (84.7)27 (73.0)0.09856 (73.7)102 (87.9)0.019
 Joint pain156 (78.0)127 (77.9)29 (78.4)1.00056 (73.7)94 (81.0)0.284
 Chest pain152 (76.0)128 (78.5)24 (64.9)0.09047 (61.8)98 (84.5)0.001
 Cough146 (73.0)117 (71.8)29 (78.4)0.53955 (72.4)84 (72.4)1.000
 Fever144 (72.0)113 (69.3)31 (83.8)0.10451 (67.1)86 (74.1)0.329
 Sore throat143 (71.5)120 (73.6)23 (62.2)0.16550 (65.8)86 (74.1)0.256
 Diarrhoea118 (59.0)91 (55.8)27 (73.0)0.06540 (52.6)76 (65.5)0.097
 Abnormal pain108 (54.0)91 (55.8)17 (45.9)0.36130 (39.5)75 (64.7)0.001
 Wheezing98 (49.0)75 (46.0)23 (62.2)0.10130 (39.5)64 (55.2)0.039
 Inability to walk80 (40.0)58 (35.6)22 (59.5)0.00924 (31.6)50 (43.1)0.130
 Runny nose68 (34.0)55 (33.7)13 (35.1)0.8524 (31.6)41 (35.3)0.642
Time interval
 Initial symptoms to assessment (days), median (IQR)141 (110–162)141 (112–163)138 (97–150)0.106121 (89–158)145 (121–163)0.001
 COVID-19-positive to assessment (days), median (IQR)71 (41–114)68 (35–112)105 (59–126)0.01260 (43–98)78 (34–119)0.305
  • Data are presented as count (%).

  • Comparisons between managed at home versus hospitalised and between moderate versus PCS were conducted using Fisher’s exact test

  • BMI, body mass index; PCS, post-COVID-19 syndrome.