Table 3

Multivariable linear regression results

 Dependent variables: both in [0,1] Fraction of patients interacted with using telehealth Fraction of telehealth interactions using video Marginal effects (95% CI) P value Marginal effects (95% CI) P value GP characteristics Female 0.0372 (−0.0256 to 0.1001) 0.24 −0.0240 (−0.0624 to 0.0144) 0.22 Age (years) <35 (reference group) 35–39 −0.0305 (−0.1537 to 0.0927) 0.63 −0.0638 (−0.1399 to 0.0124) 0.10 40–44 −0.0144 (−0.1332 to 0.1045) 0.81 −0.0495 (−0.1216 to 0.0225) 0.18 45–49 −0.0526 (−0.1717 to 0.0664) 0.39 −0.0163 (−0.0904 to 0.0579) 0.67 50–54 −0.0707 (−0.1895 to 0.0482) 0.24 −0.0657 (−0.1382 to 0.0067) 0.08 55–59 −0.0756 (−0.1798 to 0.0285) 0.15 −0.1100 (−0.1736 to −0.0464) <0.001 60–64 −0.0627 (−0.1756 to 0.0502) 0.28 −0.0848 (−0.1535 to −0.0161) 0.02 65–69 0.0379 (−0.0842 to 0.1599) 0.54 −0.1487 (−0.2237 to −0.0736) <0.001 70 or higher 0.0440 (−0.0856 to 0.1736) 0.50 −0.1049 (−0.1871 to −0.0228) 0.01 Living with partner or spouse 0.0485 (−0.0410 to 0.1381) 0.29 −0.0166 (−0.0709 to 0.0378) 0.55 Have children −0.0036 (−0.0726 to 0.0655) 0.92 −0.0100 (−0.0527 to 0.0327) 0.65 Overseas trained −0.0163 (−0.0742 to 0.0416) 0.58 0.0095 (−0.0264 to 0.0455) 0.60 Has fellowship of college(s) 0.0267 (−0.0359 to 0.0894) 0.40 0.0281 (−0.0109 to 0.0671) 0.16 Hours worked per week −0.0012 (−0.0036 to 0.0012) 0.32 −0.0019 (−0.0034 to −0.0004) 0.01 % of patients bulk-billed 0.0004 (−0.0008 to 0.0016) 0.51 −0.0003 (−0.0010 to 0.0004) 0.42 Fee for standard level B consultation (\$) 0.0013 (−0.0006 to 0.0033) 0.18 0.0011 (−0.0001 to 0.0023) 0.07 Practice characteristics Practice size 1 (reference group) 2–3 0.2129 (0.0609 to 0.3648) 0.006 −0.0526 (−0.1543 to 0.0492) 0.31 4–5 0.2102 (0.0694 to 0.3509) 0.003 −0.1167 (−0.2119 to −0.0214) 0.02 6–9 0.2192 (0.0792 to 0.3591) 0.002 −0.1381 (−0.2325 to −0.0437) 0.004 10 or more 0.2842 (0.1288 to 0.4396) <0.001 −0.1237 (−0.2280 to −0.0195) 0.02 Number of allied health professionals −0.0029 (−0.0109 to 0.0052) 0.48 −0.0079 (−0.0128 to −0.0030) 0.002 Number of nurses −0.0013 (−0.0166 to 0.0140) 0.87 0.0119 (0.0023 to 0.0216) 0.02 Number of admin staff −0.0050 (−0.0167 to 0.0066) 0.40 0.0005 (−0.0068 to 0.0077) 0.90 Videoconferencing capacity Not applicable (reference group) Applicable but never used 0.0436 (-0.0369 to 0.1240) 0.29 0.0064 (-0.0437 to 0.0564) 0.80 Applicable and have experience 0.0757 (-0.0180 to 0.1694) 0.11 0.1019 (0.0434 to 0.1605) <0.001 Patient characteristics Majority of patients have complex health and social problems 0.0155 (-0.0466 to 0.0775) 0.62 0.0402 (0.0019 to 0.0785) 0.04 Number of patient interactions No decrease (reference group) Decreased by less than 20% −0.0296 (-0.0985 to 0.0393) 0.40 −0.0097 (-0.0517 to 0.0323) 0.65 Decreased by between 20% and 40% −0.0028 (-0.0756 to 0.0700) 0.94 −0.0413 (-0.0866 to 0.0041) 0.07 Decreased by more than 40% 0.0973 (-0.0064 to 0.2011) 0.07 −0.0467 (-0.1114 to 0.0181) 0.16 Area characteristics SES quartiles 1 (reference group) 2 0.0587 (−0.0333 to 0.1506) 0.21 −0.0497 (−0.1073 to 0.0079) 0.09 3 0.0561 (−0.0319 to 0.1440) 0.21 −0.0095 (−0.0652 to 0.0462) 0.74 4 0.0541 (−0.0363 to 0.1444) 0.24 −0.0672 (−0.1246 to −0.0098) 0.02 Per cent of population >65 years old −0.0015 (−0.0073 to 0.0042) 0.60 −0.0045 (−0.0080 to −0.0010) 0.01 Rurality (modified Monash model) MM1 (reference group) MM2 −0.0933 (−00.2143 to 0.0277) 0.13 −0.1029 (−0.1778 to −0.0280) 0.007 MM3 −0.0346 (−00.1561 to 0.0868) 0.58 −0.0886 (−0.1633 to −0.0139) 0.02 MM4-7 −0.0549 (−00.1695 to 0.0597) 0.35 −0.0667 (−0.1379 to 0.0046) 0.07 State New South Wales/Australian Capital Territory (reference group) Victoria 0.0488 (−00.0288 to 0.1263) 0.22 0.0108 (−0.0367 to 0.0584) 0.65 Queensland −0.1372 (−00.2143 to −00.0601) <0.001 −0.0414 (−00.0889 to 0.0061) 0.09 South Australia −0.0666 (−00.1761 to 0.0429) 0.23 −0.0727 (−00.1404 to −00.0050) 0.04 Western Australia −0.0676 (−00.1715 to 0.0363) 0.20 −0.0441 (−00.1073 to 0.0192) 0.17 Northern Territory −0.3059 (−00.6195 to 0.0076) 0.06 −0.0452 (−00.2613 to 0.1709) 0.68 Tasmania 0.1412 (−00.0628 to 0.3452) 0.17 0.0337 (−0.0944 to 0.1617) 0.61 Constant 0.1524 (−00.1607 to 0.4655) 0.34 0.3680 (0.1722 to 0.5639) <0.001 R2 0.184 0.204 Observations 448 428
• Values are bolded to denote statistical significance (p<0.10). Results are from multivariable linear regression with inverse probability weights to ensure population representativeness. Weights were calculated by comparing the sample to the population of GPs in Australia to help ensure national representativeness with respect to age, gender, qualified overseas, rurality, state/territory, and SES of GP’s work location. Rurality is defined using the modified Monash model: MM1, MM2, MM3; MM4 and MM5–7 are grouped with MM4 for the analysis. SES is defined using the ABS SEIFA Index of Disadvantage of the postcode of the GP’s practice and are in quartiles. Most disadvantaged is the bottom quartile (0%–25%) of disadvantage.

• ABS, Australian Bureau of Statistics; GP, general practitioner; MM1, Major cities; MM2, areas within 20 km of town with 50 000 population; MM3, areas within 15 km of town with 15 000–50 000 population; MM4, areas within 10 km of town with 5000–15 000 population; MM5–7, all other remote and rural areas; SEIFA, Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas; SES, socioeconomic status.