Table 3

Age-adjusted mean values and trend in cardiometabolic risk factors and prevalence of metabolic syndrome among women and men without diabetes* aged 40–84: the Tromsø Study 1994–2016

Tromsø 4Tromsø 5Tromsø 6Tromsø 7Coefficient/OR
(95% CI)†
P value
WomenN=2856N=3098N=5671N=9741
Mean (SD)
 HbA1c (%)5.38 (0.3)5.25 (0.5)5.53 (0.4)5.59 (0.3)0.13 (0.12 to 0.13)<0.001
 Serum total cholesterol (mmol/L)6.98 (1.3)6.41 (1.2)5.80 (1.1)5.63 (1.0)–0.60 (–0.61 to –0.58)<0.001
 HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)1.69 (0.4)1.57 (0.4)1.66 (0.4)1.75 (0.5)0.06 (0.05 to 0.06)<0.001
 Triglycerides (mmol/L)1.54 (0.9)1.43 (0.7)1.38 (0.7)1.34 (0.7)–0.08 (–0.10 to –0.07)<0.001
 Waist circumference (cm)84.5 (10.6)84.4 (11.5)90.7 (11.8)90.6 (12.5)3.00 (2.81 to 3.18)<0.001
 Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)141.0 (23.6)135.5 (22.4)135.6 (24.8)128.7 (20.3)–5.85 (–6.17 to –5.52)<0.001
 Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)81.5 (13.1)79.9 (12.6)75.5 (10.1)73.2 (9.7)–4.05 (–4.23 to –3.87)<0.001
Proportion, % (n)
Metabolic syndrome19.9 (614)18.5 (639)19.6 (1071)16.9 (1548)0.91 (0.87 to 0.95)<0.001
 Abdominal obesity (≥88 cm)34.0 (1034)34.4 (1150)58.6 (3213)56.4 (5250)1.55 (1.50 to 1.61)<0.001
 Low HDL cholesterol (<1.29 mmol/L)17.4 (480)25.0 (705)15.9 (871)14.3 (1406)0.83 (0.79 to 0.86)<0.001
 Hypertension69.9 (2145)61.1 (2243)61.8 (3199)49.4 (4227)0.66 (0.63 to 0.69)<0.001
 Elevated triglycerides (≥1.7 mmol/L)31.8 (934)26.9 (881)24.7 (1378)23.3 (2169)0.83 (0.80 to 0.86)<0.001
MenN=2763N=2203N=4976N=8758
Mean (SD)
 HbA1c (%)5.35 (0.4)5.33 (0.4)5.57 (0.4)5.60 (0.3)0.12 (0.11 to 0.13)<0.001
 Serum total cholesterol (mmol/L)6.64 (1.2)6.20 (1.1)5.56 (1.0)5.41 (1.0)–0.55 (–0.57 to –0.53)<0.001
 HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)1.41 (0.4)1.34 (0.4)1.37 (0.4)1.40 (0.4)0.01 (0.00 to 0.01)0.039
 Triglycerides (mmol/L)1.80 (1.0)1.70 (0.9)1.63 (1.0)1.67 (1.0)–0.05 (–0.07 to –0.03)<0.001
 Waist circumference (cm)94.8 (9.1)94.9 (9.8)99.2 (10.2)99.9 (10.9)2.44 (2.27 to 2.61)<0.001
 Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)143.4 (20.4)139.0 (20.7)139.0 (20.5)133.6 (17.8)–4.75 (–5.08 to –4.43)<0.001
 Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)85.7 (12.0)82.9 (11.9)81.6 (10.2)78.6 (9.7)–3.41 (–3.60 to –3.22)<0.001
Proportion, % (n)
Metabolic syndrome19.0 (537)18.1 (386)22.1 (1071)22.2 (1899)1.10 (1.05 to 1.16)<0.001
 Abdominal obesity (≥102 cm)20.7 (603)24.1 (564)39.8 (1919)41.5 (3494)1.55 (1.49 to 1.62)<0.001
 Low HDL cholesterol (<1.03 mmol/L)14.6 (418)17.7 (368)18.6 (929)17.4 (1557)1.07 (1.02 to 1.12)0.005
 Hypertension80.7 (2269)71.8 (1728)72.4 (3393)63.8 (5155)0.67 (0.64 to 0.70)<0.001
 Elevated triglycerides (≥1.7 mmol/L)43.4 (1162)38.8 (738)37.4 (1875)38.2 (3455)0.92 (0.89 to 0.96)<0.001
  • Coefficients/ORs with CIs and p value for trend, mean values and proportions are adjusted for age across surveys using generalised estimating equation (GEE) models. N represents crude numbers.

  • Metabolic syndrome is defined as the presence of 3 out of 5 criteria: diabetes (not present for everyone in this table), abdominal obesity, low HDL cholesterol, hypertension (blood pressure ≥130/85 mm Hg and/or use of antihypertensive medication) and elevated triglycerides.

  • *‘Without diabetes’ defined as no self-reported diabetes and HbA1c <6.5%.

  • †Regression coefficients for continuous variables and ORs for proportions are presented per 10 years.

  • HbA1c, glycated haemoglobin; HDL, high-density lipoprotein.