Table 4

Age-adjusted mean values and trend in cardiometabolic risk factors and prevalence of metabolic syndrome among women and men with diabetes* aged 40–84: the Tromsø Study 1994–2016

Tromsø 4Tromsø 5Tromsø 6Tromsø 7Coefficient/OR
(95% CI)†
P value
WomenN=120N=244N=388N=593
Mean (SD)
 HbA1c (%)7.37 (2.2)7.16 (1.5)7.03 (1.2)7.11 (1.3)–0.07 (–0.18 to 0.03)0.187
 Serum total cholesterol (mmol/L)6.89 (1.2)6.22 (1.2)5.48 (1.2)5.34 (1.1)–0.65 (–0.74 to –0.56)<0.001
 HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)1.48 (0.4)1.35 (0.4)1.38 (0.4)1.48 (0.5)0.05 (0.02 to 0.07)0.001
 Triglycerides (mmol/L)2.19 (1.1)2.06 (1.1)1.93 (1.0)1.97 (1.1)–0.08 (–0.16 to 0.00)0.049
 Waist circumference (cm)95.9 (12.3)94.7 (13.3)100.2 (13.3)101.0 (14.5)3.06 (2.16 to 3.97)<0.001
 Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)158.4 (26.8)147.4 (22.0)144.8 (24.2)137.5 (21.0)–8.87 (–10.5 to –7.23)<0.001
 Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)85.6 (16.3)81.1 (13.2)75.7 (9.9)73.6 (9.4)–5.26 (–6.07 to –4.44)<0.001
Proportion, % (n)
Metabolic syndrome84.5 (103)78.1 (191)83.9 (328)81.9 (480)1.01 (0.84 to 1.21)0.937
 Abdominal obesity (≥88 cm)74.0 (88)73.1 (170)81.3 (318)83.1 (498)1.37 (1.15 to 1.62)0.001
 Low HDL cholesterol (<1.29 mmol/L)35.7 (45)45.0 (108)43.3 (170)39.0 (232)0.95 (0.82 to 1.10)0.494
 Hypertension89.4 (109)86.5 (216)87.3 (331)81.2 (445)0.70 (0.56 to 0.89)0.003
 Elevated triglycerides (≥1.7 mmol/L)64.7 (79)53.0 (131)51.9 (201)53.1 (313)0.89 (0.77 to 1.04)0.139
MenN=132N=242N=440N=746
Mean (SD)
 HbA1c (%)7.29 (1.6)7.35 (1.3)7.34 (1.4)7.36 (1.3)0.02 (–0.07 to 0.12)0.648
 Serum total cholesterol (mmol/L)6.57 (1.3)5.89 (1.3)5.07 (1.1)4.84 (1.1)–0.73 (–0.81 to –0.65)<0.001
 HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)1.27 (0.4)1.20 (0.3)1.21 (0.3)1.23 (0.4)0.00 (–0.02 to 0.03)0.772
 Triglycerides (mmol/L)2.38 (1.5)2.19 (1.4)2.03 (1.3)2.12 (1.6)–0.07 (–0.17 to 0.04)0.213
 Waist circumference (cm)101.4 (11.6)102.6 (11.9)106.1 (11.5)107.3 (12.3)2.76 (1.98 to 3.55)<0.001
 Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)153.1 (19.8)145.0 (19.2)143.5 (20.8)137.8 (17.8)–6.57 (–7.89 to –5.24)<0.001
 Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)85.8 (13.3)83.8 (12.0)80.7 (10.4)77.2 (9.8)–4.32 (–5.06 to –3.59)<0.001
Proportion, % (n)
Metabolic syndrome77.9 (102)72.5 (175)77.2 (338)77.6 (582)1.07 (0.90 to 1.26)0.453
 Abdominal obesity (≥102 cm)46.3 (57)54.7 (126)65.1 (282)67.3 (510)1.44 (1.26 to 1.66)<0.001
 Low HDL cholesterol (<1.03 mmol/L)29.0 (41)30.5 (74)35.5 (155)37.2 (283)1.19 (1.03 to 1.37)0.018
 Hypertension95.5 (126)87.4 (215)88.3 (385)84.3 (615)0.66 (0.52 to 0.84)0.001
 Elevated triglycerides (≥1.7 mmol/L)62.1 (82)54.8 (129)52.4 (227)54.6 (413)0.94 (0.81 to 1.08)0.365
  • Coefficients/ORs with CIs and p value for trend, mean values and proportions are adjusted for age across surveys using generalised estimating equation (GEE) models. N represents crude numbers.

  • Metabolic syndrome defined as the presence of 3 out of 5 criteria: diabetes (present for everyone in this table), abdominal obesity, low HDL cholesterol, hypertension (blood pressure ≥130/85 mm Hg and/or use of antihypertensive medication) and elevated triglycerides.

  • *Diabetes defined as self-reported diabetes or HbA1c ≥6.5%.

  • †Regression coefficients for continuous variables and ORs for proportions are presented per 10 years.

  • HbA1c, glycated haemoglobin; HDL, high-density lipoprotein.