Table 2

Association of education with different COVID-19 status

EducationCOVID-19 status
Self-reportedTestedDiagnosed
OR (95% CI)pOR (95% CI)pRR (95% CI)p
Model 1
Low0.81 [0.75–0.89]<0.0010.58 [0.52–0.65]<0.0011.18 [0.67–2.07]0.6
Middle0.93 [0.87–0.99]0.030.73 [0.67–0.80]<0.0011.73 [1.19–2.50]0.004
HighRef
Model 2
Low0.79 [0.72–0.86]<0.0010.59 [0.53–0.66]<0.0011.11 [0.61–2.00]0.7
Middle0.91 [0.85–0.97]0.0060.74 [0.68–0.81]<0.0011.69 [1.17–2.44]0.005
HighRef
Model 3
Low0.77 [0.71–0.85]<0.0010.59 [0.53–0.66]<0.0011.11 [0.61–2.00]0.7
Middle0.90 [0.84–0.96]0.0020.74 [0.68–0.81]<0.0011.69 [1.16–2.45]0.006
HighRef
Model 4
Low0.78 [0.71–0.86]<0.0010.58 [0.52–0.66]<0.0011.10 [0.60–2.01]0.8
Middle0.90 [0.84–0.97]0.0040.72 [0.66–0.79]<0.0011.77 [1.21–2.60]0.003
HighRef
  • Model 1: adjusted for education, age and sex. Model 2: adjusted for education, age, sex, and six lifestyle factors (smoking status, TV watching time ≥ 4h/day, sleep time <7 or >9 h/day, MVPA<150 min/week, LLDS, and heavy drinker). Model3: adjusted for education, age, sex, six lifestyle factors (smoking status, TV watching time ≥ 4h/day, sleep time <7 or >9 h/day, MVPA<150 min/week, LLDS, and heavy drinker), and BMI. Model 4: adjusted for education, age, sex, six lifestyle factors (smoking status, TV watching time ≥ 4h/day, sleep time <7 or >9 h/day, MVPA<150 min/week, LLDS, and heavy drinker), BMI, and ethnicity.

  • BMI, body mass index; LLDS, lifelines diet score; MVPA, non-occupational moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; OR, odds ratio; RR, risk ratio.