Table 3

Association of income with different COVID-19 status

IncomeCOVID-19 status
Self-reportedTestedDiagnosed
OR (95% CI)pOR (95% CI)pRR (95% CI)p
Model 1
Low0.89 [0.83–0.96]0.0020.85 [0.77–0.93]0.0010.84 [0.54–1.31]0.4
Middle0.82 [0.76–0.88]<0.0010.84 [0.77–0.92]<0.0011.14 [0.77–1.70]0.5
HighRef
Model 2
Low0.88 [0.81–0.95]0.0010.87 [0.79–0.96]0.0050.80 [0.51–1.25]0.3
Middle0.82 [0.76–0.88]<0.0010.86 [0.78–0.94]0.0011.10 [0.73–1.64]0.6
HighRef
Model 3
Low0.88 [0.81–0.95]0.0010.87 [0.79–0.96]0.0060.80 [0.51–1.25]0.3
Middle0.81 [0.76–0.87]<0.0010.86 [0.78–0.94]0.0011.10 [0.73–1.64]0.7
HighRef
Model 4
Low0.86 [0.79–0.93]<0.0010.86 [0.78–0.95]0.0020.74 [0.47–1.18]0.2
Middle0.80 [0.74–0.87]<0.0010.86 [0.78–0.94]0.0021.05 [0.70–1.57]0.8
HighRef
  • Model 1: adjusted for income, age and sex. Model 2: adjusted for income, age, sex, and six lifestyle factors (smoking status, TV watching time ≥ 4h/day, sleep time <7 or >9 h/day, MVPA<150 min/week, LLDS, and heavy drinker). Model3: adjusted for income, age, sex, six lifestyle factors (smoking status, TV watching time ≥ 4h/day, sleep time <7 or >9 h/day, MVPA<150 min/week, LLDS, and heavy drinker), and BMI. Model 4: adjusted for income, age, sex, six lifestyle factors (smoking status, TV watching time ≥ 4h/day, sleep time <7 or >9 h/day, MVPA<150 min/week, LLDS, and heavy drinker), BMI, and ethnicity.

  • BMI, body mass index; LLDS, lifelines diet score; MVPA, non-occupational moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; OR, odds ratio; RR, risk ratio.