Table 2

Median changes in utilisation across categories of healthcare services

Healthcare serviceNumber of estimates (number of studies)Total volume of services
(pandemic and comparator)
Median change (%)IQR
Total143 (81)19 808 921
(P: 6 948 834; C: 11 102 936)
−37.2−50.5% to −19.8%
Healthcare services categories*
 Visits41 (33)14 090 495
(P: 4 631 899; C: 7 723 639)
−42.3−52.8% to −31.5%
 Admissions43 (32)1 690 021
(P: 749 942; C: 939 737)
−28.4−40.4% to −17.4%
 Diagnostics12 (7)1 692 388
(P: 640 885; C: 1 051 503)
−31.4−52.5% to −23.8%
 Therapeutics47 (28)2 336 017
(P: 926 108; C: 1 388 057)
−29.6−56.8% to −19.2%
Disease categories
 CVD64 (33)2 586 270
(P: 1 166 610; C: 1 400 041)
−29.3−41.3% to −17.0%
 Emergency services17 (14)10 572 517
(P: 3 252 399; C: 5 585 161)
−44.0−48.0% to −31.5%
Study design and data
 Studies using time-trend data13 (9)6 263 331
(P 1 974 605; C: 3 425 412)
−37.3−45.0% to −25.2%
  • *Each study could have included services across multiple categories. In order to calculate the total volume of healthcare services, we used numbers as reported in the primary studies, whenever available. If not explicitly reported, we estimated these numbers using data plotted in the figures reported in the primary studies, when available. For studies that have not reported these absolute numbers anywhere—but only reported a percentage change—their services have not been included in these totals. In addition, there will be some discrepancy between the total numbers, and the sum of pandemic and prepandemic periods, because in some cases, a study may have included a total number of services, but without breaking it down into any absolute numbers for the pandemic or prepandemic period.

  • C, comparator prepandemic period; CVD, cardiovascular disease; P, pandemic period.