Table 1

Summary characteristics of included studies (n=81)

Characteristics of included studiesn (%)
 National14 (17)
 Multicentre67 (83)
Disease categories
 Cardiovascular33 (41)
 Emergency services (adult and paediatric)14 (17)
 General (including vaccination and hospice)12 (15)
 Digestive5 (6)
 Orthopaedic and trauma5 (6)
 Others (eg, mental health, urology, neurology)12 (15)
 Hospitals (or inpatient care)41 (51)
 Emergency15 (19)
 Emergency and hospital12 (15)
 Community and/or outpatient9 (11)
 Hospital and outpatient4 (5)
Study design*
 Time trend
 Time trend—multiple prior year5 (6)
 Time trend—single prior year4 (5)
 Same period (before–after)
 Same period—multiple prior year16 (20)
 Same period—single prior year56 (69)
 Multinational3 (4)
 Americas24 (30)
 Europe45 (56)
 Asia and Australia9 (11)
  • *This refers to the type of data used in included studies rather than the type of analysis.