Variables | Low urbanised | Medium urbanised | Highly urbanised | P value |

n | 3554 | 2162 | 2863 | |

SUA, mean (SD), mg/dL | 5.02 (1.69) | 5.16 (1.75) | 5.42 (1.87) | <0.001 |

HUA, n (%) | 435 (12.2) | 316 (14.6) | 567 (19.8) | <0.001 |

Age, mean (SD), year | 50.29 (14.76) | 50.50 (14.94) | 52.15 (15.37) | <0.001 |

Male, n (%) | 1696 (47.7) | 1020 (47.2) | 1327 (46.3) | 0.549 |

Hypertension, n (%) | 1169 (32.9) | 753 (34.8) | 1069 (37.3) | 0.001 |

DM, n (%) | 296 (8.3) | 258 (11.9) | 374 (13.1) | <0.001 |

High LDL-c, n (%) | 1209 (34.6) | 1000 (46.3) | 1261 (44.0) | <0.001 |

Obesity, n (%) | 298 (8.4) | 212 (9.8) | 312 (10.9) | <0.001 |

eGFR, mean (SD), mL/min/1.73 m^{2} | 81.98 (16.46) | 78.71 (16.88) | 76.57 (16.94) | <0.001 |

CKD, n (%) | 307 (8.6) | 255 (11.8) | 437 (15.3) | <0.001 |

Smoking, n (%) | 1108 (31.2) | 558 (25.8) | 708 (24.7) | <0.001 |

Drinking, n (%) | 791 (22.3) | 458 (21.2) | 536 (18.7) | <0.001 |

Physical activity, mean (SD), METs | 125.48 (123.73) | 81.53 (101.49) | 51.71 (72.26) | <0.001 |

Continuous variables were expressed as mean±SD and categorical variables were described as frequencies and percentages.

One-way analysis of variance test (for continuous variables) and χ

^{2}test (for categorical variables) were used to compare differences between different groups.CKD, chronic kidney disease; DM, diabetes mellitus; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HUA, hyperuricemia; LDL-c, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; MET, metabolic equivalent for task; n, number; SUA, serum uric acid.