Table 1

Basic characteristics of participants according to community-level urbanisation index

VariablesLow urbanisedMedium urbanisedHighly urbanisedP value
n355421622863
SUA, mean (SD), mg/dL5.02 (1.69)5.16 (1.75)5.42 (1.87)<0.001
HUA, n (%)435 (12.2)316 (14.6)567 (19.8)<0.001
Age, mean (SD), year50.29 (14.76)50.50 (14.94)52.15 (15.37)<0.001
Male, n (%)1696 (47.7)1020 (47.2)1327 (46.3)0.549
Hypertension, n (%)1169 (32.9)753 (34.8)1069 (37.3)0.001
DM, n (%)296 (8.3)258 (11.9)374 (13.1)<0.001
High LDL-c, n (%)1209 (34.6)1000 (46.3)1261 (44.0)<0.001
Obesity, n (%)298 (8.4)212 (9.8)312 (10.9)<0.001
eGFR, mean (SD), mL/min/1.73 m281.98 (16.46)78.71 (16.88)76.57 (16.94)<0.001
CKD, n (%)307 (8.6)255 (11.8)437 (15.3)<0.001
Smoking, n (%)1108 (31.2)558 (25.8)708 (24.7)<0.001
Drinking, n (%)791 (22.3)458 (21.2)536 (18.7)<0.001
Physical activity, mean (SD), METs125.48 (123.73)81.53 (101.49)51.71 (72.26)<0.001
  • Continuous variables were expressed as mean±SD and categorical variables were described as frequencies and percentages.

  • One-way analysis of variance test (for continuous variables) and χ2 test (for categorical variables) were used to compare differences between different groups.

  • CKD, chronic kidney disease; DM, diabetes mellitus; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HUA, hyperuricemia; LDL-c, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; MET, metabolic equivalent for task; n, number; SUA, serum uric acid.