Table 2

Outcomes of included trials

StudyN randomisedAppearance relatedGeneral mental healthDepressionSocial anxiety
No intervention or routine care controlled trials
Chen
201629
Total: 70*
Tx: 35
Control: 35
BIS: SMD (95% CI)
4 weeks
−0.07 (−0.54 to 0.40)
8 weeks
−0.08 (−0.56 to 0.39)
12 weeks
−0.43 (−0.92 to 0.06)
RSES: SMD (95% CI)
4 weeks
−0.19 (−0.67 to 0.28)
8 weeks
0.31 (−0.17 to 0.79)
12 weeks
−0.03 (−0.52 to 0.45)
HADS-D: SMD (95% CI)
4 weeks
0.33 (−0.15 to 0.80)
8 weeks
−0.08 (−0.56 to 0.39)
12 weeks
−0.14 (−0.62 to 0.35)
LSAS-F: SMD (95% CI)
4 weeks
−0.29 (−0.76 to 0.19)
8 weeks
−0.29 (−0.77 to 0.19)
12 weeks
−0.41 (−0.89 to 0.08)
LSAS-A: SMD (95% CI)
4 weeks
−0.32 (−0.80 to 0.15)
8 weeks
−0.41 (−0.89 to–0.07)
12 weeks
−0.33 (−0.82 to 0.16)
Matsuoka
200630
Total: 50†
Treatment: 25
Control: 25
NAWHOQOL-26-P: SMD (95% CI)
4 weeks
0.05 (−0.50 to 0.60)
WHOQOL-26-SR: SMD (95% CI)
4 weeks
−0.02 (−0.57 to 0.54)
DLQI-SF: SMD (95% CI)
4 weeks
0.00 (−0.55 to 0.55)
DLQI-PR: SMD (95% CI)
4 weeks
0.16 (-0.40 to 0.71)
NANA
Nicoletti
2014‡31
Total: 24§
Treatment: 12
Control: 12
BUT-GSI:
3 months¶:
Tx: change=−0.26, IQR=−0.72, 0.16
Control: change=0.03, IQR=−0.08, 0.34
p=0.371
6 months¶:
Tx: change=−0.15, IQR=−0.54, 0.45
Control: change=0.12, IQR=−0.09, 0.64
p=0.318
SP-PF:
3 months¶:
Tx: change=−4.75, IQR=−12.47, 5.02,
Control: change=7.15, IQR=4.4–8.1
p=0.270
6 months¶:
Tx change=−9.15, IQR=−10.3,–3.25
Control change=18.1, IQR=−4.5, 28.33
p=0.003
SP-SF:
3 months¶:
Tx: change=−3.54, IQR=−11.04, 17.02
Control: change=13.84, IQR=−3.75, 17.92,
p=0.318
6 months¶:
Tx group change=−1.99, IQR=−16.00, 9.54
Control group change=0.83, IQR=−5.17, 5.50
p=0.636
NANA
Nolte
2006**27
Total: 136
Treatment: 68
Control: 68††
BCSCS-BC:
Post-tx:
F(1,132)= 0.11, p=0.74
(Tx: 68; Control 68)
BCSCS-SC:
Post-tx
F(1,132)= 0.32, p=0.57
(Tx: 68; Control 68)
NANA
Richard
201832
Total: 44
Treatment: 22
Control: 22‡‡
BIS:
2 weeks, 4 weeks: NR;
Improvements in body image were independent of treatment (p>0.05)
RSES:
2 weeks: d = -0.68§§
4 weeks: d = -0.72§§
CES-D:
2 weeks: d = -0.83§§
4 weeks: d = -0.45§§
NA
Head-to-head trial
Beresniak
201728
Total: 88¶¶BeautyQOL-Attractiveness: at 1 and 3 weeks, mean A>mean B; p>0.05
BeautyQOL-Social Life: at 1 and 3 weeks, mean A>mean B; p>0.05
BeautyQOL-Mood: at 1 and 3 weeks, mean A>mean B; p>0.05
BeautyQOL-Self Confidence:
1 week: mean A>mean B; p<0.05
3 weeks: mean A>mean B; p>0.05
NANANA
  • Scores reversed for some outcome measures such that higher scores indicate worse functioning for all measures and negative between-group effects reflect better outcomes in the intervention groups.

  • *Tx (n: 35, 34, 32) and control (n: 34, 34, 34) at 4, 8 and 12 weeks, respectively.

  • †Number randomised not provided, noted that 50 patients participated in the study.

  • ‡Effect sizes could not be calculated.

  • §Tx (n: 12, 12) and control (n: 12, 12) at 3 and 6 months, respectively.

  • ¶Data reported as change score (IQR) from baseline to 3 months and p value is for between-group difference.

  • **Intervention effect comparing baseline scores to scores after course 4 of chemotherapy using BCSCS scores during course 3 of chemotherapy as a covariate reported.

  • ††Tx (n: 68) and control (n: 68) at post-tx measurement.

  • ‡‡Tx (n: 20, 29) and control (n: 19, 19) at 2 and 4 weeks.

  • §§Baseline corrected.

  • ¶¶Tx and Control n not provided; 86 participants completed study.

  • BCSCS-BC, Body Cathexis/Self-Cathexis Scale-Body Cathexis; BCSCS-SC, Body Cathexis/Self-Cathexis Scale-Self-Cathexis; BIS, Body Image Scale; BUT-GSI, Body Uneasiness Test Global Score Index; DLQI-PR, Dermatology Life Quality Index-Personal Relationships; DLQI-SF, Dermatology Life Quality Index-Symptoms/Feelings; HADS-D, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; LSAS-A, Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale-Anxiety; LSAS-F, Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale-Fear; NA, not available; RSES, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale; SMD, standardised mean difference; SP-PF, Satisfaction Profile-Psychological Functionality; SP-SF, Satisfaction Profile-Social Functionality; Tx, treatment/intervention group; WHOQOL-26-P, WHO Quality of Life-Psychological domain; WHOQOL-26-SR, WHO Quality of Life-Social Relationships domain.