Table 5

Identified barriers, (anticipated) facilitators of CKD self-management in five domains

TDF domainPatientHCPOperationalisation
Knowledge×*×­Patients’ lack of general knowledge of CKD.
Patients’ lack of knowledge on lifestyle changes.
Patients’ lack of knowledge of treatment.
Environmental context and resources××Limited education resources or materials for patients’ knowledge.
­Time constraints of HCPs.
Behavioural regulation×­Patients’ insufficient information on lifestyle behaviour change.
­Patients’ difficulties in breaking certain habits.
Emotion×Patients’ experienced fear, anxiety and depression.
Patients’ lack of confidence deal with heavy disease burden.
Social influence×Inadequate support from family members.
Interfered patient–HCP communication.
(anticipated) Facilitator
Knowledge××Patients’ sufficient general knowledge of CKD (treatment).
Patients’ sufficient knowledge of symptom management and lifestyle changes.
Environmental context and resources××Patients’ access to educational resources.
Social influence××Adequate family-level support.
Effective patient–HCP communication.
Behavioural regulation×Patients’ being able to adhere to the lifestyle changes prescribed.
  • *Domain mentioned by stakeholder.

  • HCP, healthcare professional; TDF, Theoretical Domains Framework.