Table 3

The influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on pregnancy outcomes

Pregnancy outcomesModel AModel BModel C
cRR (95% CI)P valueaRR (95% CI)P valueaRR (95% CI)P value
Adverse maternal outcomes
Gestational diabetes*0.98 (0.91 to 1.05)0.5560.97 (0.90 to 1.05)0.4600.95 (0.88 to 1.02)0.136
Gestational hypertension*0.99 (0.83 to 1.18)0.8890.99 (0.83 to 1.18)0.9200.96 (0.80 to 1.14)0.627
Premature rupture of membranes*1.09 (1.02 to 1.17)0.0071.10 (1.03 to 1.17)0.0061.11 (1.04 to 1.18)0.003
Caesarean section*1.05 (1.00 to 1.10)0.0401.05 (1.00 to 1.10)0.0551.05 (1.00 to 1.10)0.057
Adverse foetal outcomes
Stillbirth1.00 (1.00 to 100)0.4271.00 (1.00 to 1.00)0.3821.00 (1.00 to 1.00)0.387
Foetal distress*1.12 (1.00 to 1.27)0.0591.12 (1.00 to 1.27)0.0611.14 (1.01 to 1.29)0.028
Preterm birth*0.86 (0.69 to 1.07)0.1840.84 (0.68 to 1.05)0.1350.86 (0.69 to 1.08)0.190
Low birth weight*0.99 (0.77 to 1.28)0.9510.99 (0.77 to 1.28)0.9541.00 (0.78 to 1.30)0.983
Macrosomia*0.99 (0.84 to 1.17)0.9251.00 (0.85 to 1.19)0.991.00 (0.85 to 1.19)0.975
  • Model A: a univariate model without controlling for any confounding factors.

  • Model B: controls for demographic characteristics (age, ethnicity, occupation and education).

  • Model C: based on model B, supplemented to control for gravidity, parity, history of miscarriage, history of induced abortion, pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, family history of chronic disease and the number of prenatal visits.

  • *These pregnancy outcomes were all based on the data from 7694 live births.

  • aRR, adjusted risk ratio; BMI, body mass index; cRR, crude risk ratio.