Table 2

Broad categories of variables collected at baseline and each follow-up phase

PhaseMeasurements
BaselineMother self-reported questionnaire
  • Dental treatment needs, oral health-related behaviours, maternal oral self-efficacy, self-rated oral health and oral health-related quality of life.

  • General health conditions, health-related behaviours and self-rated general health.

  • Socioeconomic and psychosocial factors, including income, education, employment, experience of racism and cultural identity.

Child mean age 2 yearsCarer self-reported questionnaire
  • Dental treatment needs, oral health-related behaviours, maternal oral health literacy, self-efficacy, dental perceptions, self-rated oral health and oral health related quality of life.

  • General health conditions (mother and child), health-related behaviours, physical activity, self-rated general health, 24-hour dietary recalls (child), breastfeeding habits.

  • Socioeconomic and psychosocial factors, including income, education, employment, experience of racism and cultural identity.

  • Family functioning and home environment


Child height, weight, blood pressure, upper arm circumference
Child dental examination
Child mean age 3 yearsCarer self-reported questionnaire
  • Dental treatment needs, oral health-related behaviours, maternal oral health literacy, self-efficacy, dental perceptions, self-rated oral health and oral health related quality of life.

  • General health conditions (mother and child), health-related behaviours, physical activity, self-rated general health and dietary habits.

  • Socioeconomic factors.


Child height, weight, blood pressure, upper arm circumference
Child dental examination
Child mean age 5 yearsCarer self-reported questionnaire
  • Dental treatment needs, oral health-related behaviours, maternal oral health literacy, self-efficacy, dental perceptions, self-rated oral health and oral health related quality of life.

  • General health conditions (mother and child), health-related behaviours, physical activity, self-rated general health and dietary habits.

  • Socioeconomic factors.

  • Family functioning and home environment.

  • Child socioemotional well-being and cognitive outcomes.


Child height, weight, blood pressure, upper arm circumference
Child dental examination
Child mean age 7 yearsCarer self-reported questionnaire
  • Dental treatment needs, oral health-related behaviours, maternal oral health literacy, self-efficacy, dental perceptions, self-rated oral health and oral health-related quality of life.

  • General health conditions (mother and child), health-related behaviours, physical activity, self-rated general health and dietary habits.

  • Socioeconomic factors.

  • Family functioning and home environment.

  • Child socioemotional well-being and cognitive outcomes.


Child height, weight, blood pressure, upper arm circumference
Child dental examination