Table 3

Determinants of child immunisation and sick child services utilisation in four regions of Ethiopia, 2019

VariableCategoryFull immunisation
12–23 months
Sick child care utilisation
2–59 months
OR (95% CI)AOR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)AOR (95% CI)
Household and individual-level characteristics
 Wealth tertilesLowRef.Ref.Ref.Ref.
Middle0.91 (0.52 to 1.62)0.75 (0.42 to 1.34)0.73 (0.39 to 1.37)0.71 (0.38 to 1.33)
Upper1.58 (0.91 to 2.77)1.15 (0.61 to 2.17)1.02 (0.55 to 1.91)0.89 (0.42 to 1.88)
 SexGirlRef.Ref.Ref.Ref.
Boy1.15 (0.84 to 1.57)1.18 (0.85 to 1.63)1.11 (0.73 to 1.66)1.02 (0.67 to 1.55)
 Number of under 5 children in the householdOne childRef.Ref.Ref.Ref.
≥Two children1.10 (0.79 to 1.54)1.21 (0.86 to 1.72)1.15 (0.74 to 1.80)1.33 (0.83 to 2.14)
Group-level characteristics
 RegionTigrayRef.Ref.Ref.Ref.
Amhara1.32 (0.72 to 2.42)1.23 (0.62 to 2.45)2.07 (1.03 to 4.13)2.26 (1.02 to 5.03)
Oromia0.49 (0.25 to 0.94)0.49 (0.25 to 0.95)2.87 (1.42 to 5.86)3.09 (1.54 to 6.19)
SNNP0.68 (0.30 to 1.52)0.55 (0.23 to 1.34)2.04 (0.90 to 4.62)2.55 (1.07 to 6.09)
 Distance to health facility tertilesShortRef.Ref.Ref.Ref.
Medium0.69 (0.46 to 1.04)0.64 (0.41 to 0.98)0.49 (0.29 to 0.82)0.50 (0.29 to 0.85)
Long0.84 (0.55 to 1.28)0.82 (0.53 to 1.27)0.76 (0.44 to 1.29)0.76 (0.44 to 1.29)
 Difference in altitude tertiles*SmallRef.Ref.Ref.Ref.
Medium1.00 (0.66 to 1.47)0.99 (0.65 to 1.51)0.88 (0.54 to 1.44)1.02 (0.61 to 1.70)
Great0.85 (0.54 to 1.35)0.89 (0.55 to 1.42)0.48 (0.28 to 0.82)0.59 (0.34 to 1.01)
ICC for the null model (%)24%18%
ICC for the final model (%)19%8%
  • *Difference in altitude between household and nearest health facility.

  • AOR, adjusted OR; ICC, intraclass correlation coefficient.