Table 2

Determinants of antenatal care four or more times and facility delivery in four regions of Ethiopia, 2019

CharacteristicCategoryAntenatal care four or more visitsInstitutional delivery
OR (95% CI)AOR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)AOR (95% CI)
Household and individual-level characteristics
 Wealth tertilesLowRef.Ref.Ref.Ref.
Middle1.40 (0.90 to 2.19)1.15 (0.74 to 1.81)2.48 (1.54 to 4.01)1.61 (0.99 to 2.60)
Upper2.50 (1.55 to 4.02)1.67 (1.02 to 2.75)6.85 (3.87 to 12.15)3.70 (2.11 to 6.48)
 Age<20Ref.Ref.Ref.Ref.
21–251.84 (1.01 to 3.37)1.52 (0.80 to 2.89)0.62 (0.34 to 1.17)0.72 (0.36 to 1.43)
26–302.33 (1.29 to 4.22)1.74 (0.85 to 3.53)0.71 (0.38 to 1.32)0.99 (0.45 to 2.15)
31–351.99 (1.02 to 3.91)1.51 (0.68 to 3.40)0.85 (0.41 to 1.76)1.35 (0.54 to 3.34
36–491.97 (0.90 to 4.28)1.42 (0.56 to 3.61)0.78 (0.33 to 1.85)1.34 (0.47 to 3.82)
 Educational levelNo schoolRef.Ref.Ref.Ref.
Schooling1.12 (0.79 to 1.60)1.18 (0.80 to 1.74)1.53 (1.02 to 2.29)1.26 (0.81 to 1.96)
 ParityOneRef.Ref.Ref.Ref.
Two0.92 (0.51 to 1.68)1.01 (0.55 to 1.87)0.69 (0.34 to 1.41)0.94 (0.46 to 1.93)
Three0.69 (0.37 to 1.30)0.77 (0.39 to 1.52)0.37 (0.18 to 0.74)0.48 (0.22 to 1.05)
Four1.35 (0.74 to 2.47)1.44 (0.73 to 2.84)0.41 (0.20 to 0.84)0.62 (0.28 to 1.40)
≥Five0.96 (0.56 to 1.62)1.01 (0.56 to 2.15)0.38 (0.20 to 0.71)0.47 (0.21 to 1.03)
Group-level characteristics
 RegionTigrayRef.Ref.Ref.Ref.
Amhara0.93 (0.49 to 1.70)0.75 (0.41 to 1.36)1.99 (0.91 to 4.39)1.35 (0.66 to 2.77)
Oromia0.23 (0.13.to 0.45)0.22 (0.12 to 0.41)0.13 (0.06 to 0.28)0.13 (0.06 to 0.26)
SNNP1.48 (0.66 to 3.35)1.05 (0.49 to 3.34)2.32 (0.80 to 6.75)1.26 (0.48 to 3.34)
 Distance to health facility tertilesShortRef.Ref.Ref.Ref.
Medium1.06 (0.69 to 1.64)1.01 (0.67 to 1.54)0.87 (0.52 to 1.44)0.90 (0.56 to 1.47)
Long0.75 (0.46 to 1.22)0.77 (0.49 to 1.19)0.51 (0.29 to 0.90)0.57 (0.34 to 0.96)
 Difference in altitude tertiles*SmallRef.Ref.Ref.Ref.
Medium0.78 (0.49 to 1.22)0.85 (0.55 to 1.29)0.59 (0.34 to 1.02)0.60 (0.36 to 1.01)
Great0.48 (0.28 to 0.83)0.46 (0.29 to 0.74)0.39 (0.19 to 0.79)0.34 (0.19 to 0.59)
ICC for the null model (%)27%49%
ICC for the final model (%)8%13%
  • *Difference in altitude between household and nearest health centre.

  • AOR, adjusted OR; ICC, intraclass correlation coefficient.