Table 5

Multinomial regression of mortality outcomes over the 12-week period for those who died (n=1093) either in the community (n=537) or non-COVID-19-related (n=284) and COVID-19-related (n=272) hospital deaths (HD) (see table 1) compared with those who were alive (n=227 539)

COVID-19 HDNon-COVID-19 HDCommunity death
Gender (male)2 (1.5 to 2.6), p<0.0011.5 (1.2 to 1.9), p<0.011.7 (1.4 to 2.1), p<0.001
Age category Q2 (30–40)ns, p=0.997>100, p<0.001ns, p=0.85
Age category Q3 (41–51)2.5 (0.5 to 14), ns, p=0.283>100, p<0.0016.6 (1.9 to 22.6), p<0.01
Age category Q4 (52–65)10.5 (2.4 to 44.8), p<0.01>100, p<0.00113.9 (4.3 to 44.9), p<0.001
Age category Q5 (66–113)39.9 (9.6 to 165.5), p<0.001>100, p<0.00141.3 (13 to 130.9), p<0.001
IMD category Q2 (16.5–27.7)ns, p=0.1631.8 (1.2 to 2.6), p<0.01ns, p=0.708
IMD category Q3 (27.8–39.0)1.5 (1 to 2.2), p<0.052.2 (1.5 to 3.1), p<0.001ns, p=0.054
IMD category Q4 (39.3–45.7)ns, p=0.3191.8 (1.2 to 2.7), p<0.01ns, p=0.384
IMD category Q5 (45.7–71.8)ns, p=0.713ns, p=0.4551.6 (1.2 to 2.1), p<0.01
Ethnicity South Asian0.5 (0.3 to 0.8), p<0.010.4 (0.3 to 0.6), p<0.0010.5 (0.3 to 0.7), p<0.001
Ethnicity black2.1 (1.5 to 3.2), p<0.0010.5 (0.3 to 1), p<0.05ns, p=0.841
Smoking current or prior0 (0 to 0), p<0.0010.1 (0.1 to 0.2), p<0.0010.1 (0.1 to 0.1), p<0.001
Body mass index1 (0.9 to 1), p<0.011 (1 to 1), ns, p=0.121 (1 to 1), p<0.05
Prior emergency admissions (1 year)1.2 (1.1 to 1.3), p<0.0011.3 (1.2 to 1.4), p<0.0011.3 (1.2 to 1.4), p<0.001
Palliative care registered9.5 (6.8 to 13.2), p<0.0015.9 (4.2 to 8.4), p<0.0015.9 (4.7 to 7.5), p<0.001
Nursing home residentns, p=0.547ns, p=0.6343.5 (2.7 to 4.6), p<0.001
Comorbidities ≥33 (2 to 4.4), p<0.0012.3 (1.6 to 3.3), p<0.0011.7 (1.3 to 2.3), p<0.001
Peripheral vascular disease2.6 (1.8 to 3.9), p<0.0011.9 (1.3 to 2.9), p<0.01ns, p=0.232
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease2.1 (1.4 to 3), p<0.0013.8 (2.8 to 5.2), p<0.0012.2 (1.7 to 2.9), p<0.001
Cardiac failure2 (1.5 to 2.8), p<0.0011.7 (1.2 to 2.3), p<0.011.8 (1.4 to 2.3), p<0.001
Chronic kidney disease1.6 (1.2 to 2.1), p<0.01ns, p=0.095ns, p=0.328
Diabetes1.4 (1.1 to 1.9), p<0.05ns, p=0.465ns, p=0.426
Atrial fibrillation1.4 (1 to 1.9), p<0.051.9 (1.4 to 2.6), p<0.001ns, p=0.602
Cancerns, p=0.3381.5 (1.1 to 2), p<0.012.1 (1.7 to 2.6), p<0.001
Dementians, p=0.878ns, p=0.5052 (1.5 to 2.6), p<0.001
Asthmans, p=0.3370.7 (0.5 to 1), p<0.05ns, p=0.376
  • Results are OR with 95% CIs. For age and Index of Multiple Deprivation categories, the comparators were the youngest and least deprived quintile, respectively. Variables not listed from table 1 were excluded stepwise (backwards) as not significant.

  • IMD, Index of Multiple Deprivation.