Table 3

Multinomial regression for the association of factors with COVID-19-related or non-COVID-19-related emergency hospital admissions (HA) compared with the reference category of those not admitted (n=223 074)

CHANCHACHA vs NCHA
Number (% of population)930 (0.4%)4628 (2%)
Gender (male)1.5 (1.3 to 1.7), p<0.001ns, p=0.481.3 (1.1 to 1.5), p<0.001
Age category Q2 (30–40)2.7 (1.5 to 5), p<0.011.2 (1 to 1.3), p<0.052.2 (1.2 to 4), p<0.05
Age category Q3 (41–51)5.1 (2.9 to 9), p<0.0011.4 (1.2 to 1.6), p<0.0013.2 (1.8 to 5.8), p<0.001
Age category Q4 (52–65)7.8 (4.6 to 13.4), p<0.0011.7 (1.5 to 1.9), p<0.0013.7 (2.1 to 6.5), p<0.001
Age category Q5 (66–113)16.6 (9.7 to 28.3), p<0.0012.9 (2.5 to 3.3), p<0.0014.7 (2.7 to 8.1), p<0.001
IMD category Q2 (16.5–27.7)1.8 (1.4 to 2.2), p<0.0012 (1.8 to 2.2), p<0.001ns
IMD category Q3 (27.8–39.0)1.7 (1.4 to 2.1), p<0.0011.5 (1.4 to 1.7), p<0.001ns
IMD category Q4 (39.3–45.7)1.6 (1.3 to 2), p<0.0011.4 (1.3 to 1.6), p<0.001ns
IMD category Q5 (45.7–71.8)ns, p=0.517ns, p=0.574ns
Ethnicity South Asian0.4 (0.3 to 0.5), p<0.0010.5 (0.4 to 0.5), p<0.0011 (0.7 to 1.2), ns, 0.735
Ethnicity black1.7 (1.3 to 2.1), p<0.0010.6 (0.5 to 0.7), p<0.0013.1 (2.4 to 4), p<0.001
Smoking current or prior0.3 (0.2 to 0.3), p<0.0010.5 (0.4 to 0.5), p<0.0010.7 (0.5 to 0.8), p<0.001
Prior emergency admissions (1 year)1.6 (1.5 to 1.7), p<0.0011.8 (1.7 to 1.8), p<0.0010.9 (0.9 to 1), p<0.05
Palliative care registered4.1 (3.2 to 5.1), p<0.0011.7 (1.4 to 2), p<0.0012.4 (1.9 to 3.1), p<0.001
Nursing home resident1.7 (1.3 to 2.3), p<0.0011.2 (1 to 1.5), ns, 0.0581.7 (1.3 to 2.2), p<0.001
Comorbidities ≥31.5 (1.2 to 1.9), p<0.011.4 (1.3 to 1.6), p<0.001ns
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease1.9 (1.5 to 2.3), p<0.0011.8 (1.6 to 2), p<0.001ns
Peripheral vascular disease1.8 (1.4 to 2.3), p<0.0011.2 (1 to 1.4), p<0.051.5 (1.1 to 2), p<0.01
Atrial fibrillation1.7 (1.4 to 2.1), p<0.0011.4 (1.2 to 1.5), p<0.0011.3 (1.1 to 1.6), p<0.01
Diabetes1.6 (1.4 to 1.9), p<0.0011.3 (1.2 to 1.4), p<0.0011.4 (1.2 to 1.6), p<0.001
Cardiac failure1.6 (1.3 to 1.9), p<0.0011.4 (1.2 to 1.6), p<0.001ns
Rheumatoid arthritis1.5 (1.1 to 2), p<0.01ns, p=0.134ns
Epilepsy1.4 (1 to 2), p<0.051.4 (1.2 to 1.6), p<0.001ns
Chronic kidney disease1.3 (1.1 to 1.6), p<0.011.2 (1 to 1.3), p<0.01ns
Hypertension1.2 (1 to 1.5), p<0.05ns, p=0.1961.2 (1 to 1.4), p<0.05
Cancer1.2 (1 to 1.5), p<0.051.6 (1.5 to 1.8), p<0.0010.8 (0.7 to 1), p<0.05
Cerebrovascular diseasens, p=0.1011.2 (1 to 1.3), p<0.05ns
Ischaemic heart diseasens, p=0.8591.5 (1.3 to 1.6), p<0.0010.7 (0.6 to 0.9), p<0.01
Depressionns, p=0.341.1 (1 to 1.2), p<0.01ns
Dementians, p=0.0590.8 (0.7 to 1), p<0.05ns
  • Data are OR with 95% CIs. For age and IMD as categorical ordinal variables (data ranges shown), the comparators were the youngest and least deprived quintiles, respectively. Comorbidity associations are listed in descending OR order for the CA group. The comparison of CA vs NCA was by binary logistic regression. Variables not listed (table 1) were excluded stepwise as not significant.

  • CA, COVID-19 admissions; CHA, COVID-19 hospital admissions; IMD, Index of Multiple Deprivation; NCA, non-COVID-19 admissions; NCHA, non-COVID-19 hospital admissions.