Table 1

Demographics of early versus not-early palliative care

After propensity score matching
No-RAIYes-RAI
Not early palliative care
(N=36 238)
Early palliative care (N=36 238)SDNot early palliative care (N=3586)Early palliative care (N=3568)SD
N (%)N (%)N (%)N (%)
Variables that were hard matched
Mean age ±SD69.43±12.8469.36±12.870.0176.63±11.2576.46±11.190.01
Female17 702 (48.8)17 702 (48.8)0.001826 (50.9)1826 (50.9)0.00
Cancer type at diagnosis
 Breast4126 (11.4)4126 (11.4)0.00433 (12.1)433 (12.1)0.00
 Colorectal5266 (14.5)5266 (14.5)0.00722 (20.1)722 (20.1)0.00
 Haematology2982 (8.2)2982 (8.2)0.00479 (13.4)479 (13.4)0.00
 Lung8530 (23.5)8530 (23.5)0.00548 (15.3)548 (15.3)0.00
 Prostate3053 (8.4)3053 (8.4)0.00486 (13.6)486 (13.6)0.00
Stage at diagnosis
 Stage III3726 (10.3)3726 (10.3)0.00275 (7.7)275 (7.7)0.00
 Stage IV5151 (14.2)5151 (14.2)0.00329 (9.2)329 (9.2)0.00
 Unavailable24 631 (68.0)24 631 (68.0)0.002749 (76.7)2749 (76.7)0.00
CHESS Score (when RAI-HC completed)
 No health instability921 (25.7)921 (25.7)0.00
 Low health instability2242 (62.5)2242 (62.5)0.00
 Moderate health instability380 (10.6)380 (10.6)0.00
 Severe health instability43 (1.2)43 (1.2)0.00
Variables within the Propensity Score
Lowest income quintile7058 (19.5)7146 (19.7)0.01776 (21.6)790 (22.0)0.01
Highest income quintile7102 (19.6)7130 (19.7)0.00626 (17.5)622 (17.3)0.00
Lives in Rural Community5206 (14.4)5236 (14.4)0.00579 (16.1)568 (15.8)0.01
Deyo-Charlson Comorbidity Score (≥1)12 026 (33.2)12 540 (34.6)0.031483 (41.4)1426 (39.8)0.08
Had Radiation since diagnosis22 337 (61.6)21 982 (60.7)0.021894 (52.8)1950 (54.4)0.03
Had cancer surgery since diagnosis16 339 (45.1)15 701 (43.3)0.041780 (49.6)1716 (47.9)0.04
Mean hospital days (between 2 and 1 years before death)±SD0.82±1.120.84±1.170.010.94±1.210.91±1.160.03
Disease duration
 0–5 years28 084 (77.5)29 115 (80.3)0.072347 (65.4)2515 (70.1)0.10
 6–11 years4918 (13.6)4581 (12.6)0.03656 (18.3)636 (17.7)0.01
 12–17 years2018 (5.6)1618 (4.5)0.05324 (9.0)249 (6.9)0.08
 18+ years1218 (3.4)924 (2.5)0.05259 (7.2)186 (5.2)0.08
InterRAI Scales (When RAI-HC completed)
Dependent on activities of daily living241 (6.7)247 (6.9)0.01
Minor-major depression496 (13.8)429 (10.0)0.06
Moderate-to-severe cognitive impairment373 (10.4)363 (10.1)0.01
Moderate-to-severe pain391 (10.9)398 (11.1)0.01
Caregiver present at Home2279 (63.6)2264 (63.1)0.01
  • CHESS, Changes in Health, End-stage Disease, Signs and Symptoms; RAI-HC, Resident Assessment Instrument-Home Care.