Table 1

Baseline characteristics and outcomes for patients, including demographics, co-morbidities, admission vital signs and laboratory blood tests, stratified by diagnosis and SARS- CoV-2 RT-PCR status

Not diagnosed with COVIDAll COVID diagnosesP valueCOVID diagnosis PCR negativeCOVID diagnosis PCR positiveP value
n=2215n=1793n=283n=1391
Age at admission, median years (IQR)71 (51, 82) (n=2215)69 (56, 81) (n=1793)0.4470 (54, 79) (n=283)70 (57, 81) (n=1391)0.27
Age 65 years or older1266 (57.2%)1005 (56.1%)0.48154 (54.4%)800 (57.5%)0.34
SexFemale1021 (46.1%)651 (36.3%)<0.0001112 (39.6%)498 (35.8%)0.23
Male1193 (53.9%)1142 (63.7%)171 (60.4%)893 (64.2%)
EthnicitySouth Asian486 (21.9%)447 (24.9%)<0.000157 (20.1%)362 (26.0%)0.15
Asian Other174 (7.9%)211 (11.8%)30 (10.6%)162 (11.6%)
Black African or Caribbean212 (9.6%)224 (12.5%)33 (11.7%)181 (13.0%)
Mixed ethnicity6 (0.3%)10 (0.6%)2 (0.7%)8 (0.6%)
Unknown330 (14.9%)318 (17.7%)53 (18.7%)233 (16.8%)
White European890 (40.2%)458 (25.5%)81 (28.6%)361 (26.0%)
Other117 (5.3%)125 (7.0%)27 (9.5%)84 (6.0%)
Index of multiple deprivation decile, median (IQR)5 (3, 7) (n=2105)5 (3, 6) (n=1743)0.0484 (3, 6) (n=277)5 (3, 6) (n=1366)0.043
Diabetes563 (25.7%)599 (33.6%)<0.000181 (28.9%)482 (34.8%)0.059
Hypertension825 (37.7%)739 (41.5%)0.015110 (39.3%)590 (42.6%)0.31
Ischaemic heart disease413 (18.9%)309 (17.3%)0.2144 (15.7%)247 (17.8%)0.40
Heart failure156 (7.1%)70 (3.9%)<0.000114 (5.0%)53 (3.8%)0.36
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease185 (8.5%)112 (6.3%)0.01021 (7.5%)88 (6.3%)0.48
Asthma200 (9.1%)165 (9.3%)0.8919 (6.8%)133 (9.6%)0.14
Cancer169 (7.7%)78 (4.4%)<0.000111 (3.9%)65 (4.7%)0.58
HIV21 (1.0%)14 (0.8%)0.563 (1.1%)11 (0.8%)0.64
Cerebrovascular disease110 (5.0%)96 (5.4%)0.6115 (5.4%)75 (5.4%)0.97
Dementia156 (7.1%)188 (10.5%)<0.000129 (10.4%)153 (11.0%)0.74
Chronic kidney disease263 (12.0%)233 (13.1%)0.3133 (11.8%)182 (13.1%)0.54
Cough537 (24.5%)1114 (62.5%)<0.0001177 (63.2%)865 (62.4%)0.80
Shortness of breath687 (31.4%)1171 (65.7%)<0.0001203 (72.5%)886 (63.9%)0.006
Fever547 (25.0%)1117 (62.7%)<0.0001184 (65.7%)860 (62.0%)0.25
Confusion241 (11.0%)195 (10.9%)0.9530 (10.7%)153 (11.0%)0.87
Symptom duration (days), median (IQR)4 (2, 12) (n=592)7 (3, 10) (n=1083)0.0107 (3, 12) (n=163)6 (3, 10) (n=844)0.021
Observations
Pulse >120 bpm203 (10.3%)241 (14.3%)<0.000141 (15.4%)177 (13.4%)0.39
Respiratory rate >30 per minute175 (8.9%)568 (33.6%)<0.000190 (33.8%)439 (33.3%)0.87
Temperature >38°C180 (9.2%)605 (35.9%)<0.000172 (27.0%)495 (37.7%)<0.001
Systolic blood pressure <100 mm Hg108 (5.5%)101 (6.1%)0.5116 (6.1%)78 (6.0%)0.97
Consciousness levelAlert646 (95.1%)596 (96.0%)0.93101 (97.1%)449 (95.5%)0.47
Confusion13 (1.9%)11 (1.8%)3 (2.9%)8 (1.7%)
Verbal8 (1.2%)5 (0.8%)0 (0.0%)4 (0.9%)
Pain5 (0.7%)3 (0.5%)0 (0.0%)3 (0.6%)
Unresponsive7 (1.0%)6 (1.0%)0 (0.0%)6 (1.3%)
O2 saturations<94%198 (10.1%)543 (32.2%)<0.000179 (29.8%)430 (32.6%)0.37
NEWS 2 Score, median (IQR)2 (1, 4) (n=1951)6 (3, 8) (n=1666)<0.00016 (4, 7) (n=264)6 (3, 8) (n=1299)0.73
NEWS 2 Score ≥5477 (24.4%)1084 (65.1%)<0.0001176 (66.7%)840 (64.7%)0.53
Supplementary oxygen169 (8.8%)529 (33.1%)<0.000196 (37.9%)404 (32.4%)0.091
PO2 <8 mm Hg127 (35.4%)251 (36.2%)0.7934 (27.9%)205 (38.7%)0.025
PCO2 >6 mm Hg124 (34.5%)75 (10.8%)<0.000112 (9.8%)59 (11.1%)0.68
Neutrophils>10×109/L361 (17.8%)250 (15.6%)0.08352 (19.0%)183 (14.7%)0.078
Lymphocytes <1 x109/L509 (25.1%)736 (46.1%)<0.0001107 (39.1%)594 (47.8%)0.009
Platelet count x109/L, median (IQR)246.0 (193.0, 317.0) (n=2025)231.0 (177.0, 306.0) (n=1597)<0.0001263.0 (206.0, 343.0) (n=274)226.0 (172.0, 297.0) (n=1242)<0.0001
Creatinine >120 mmol/L507 (25.2%)426 (26.9%)0.2464 (23.8%)338 (27.4%)0.23
CRP μg/mL, median (IQR)16.1 (3.4, 66.9) (n=1928)98.7 (46.0, 175.3) (n=1590)<0.000186.2 (41.7, 170.1) (n=272)101.5 (48.3, 180.2) (n=1237)0.15
Influenza RT-PCRInfluenza A11 (2.3%) (n=490)1 (0.2%) (n=528)<0.00010 (n=72)1 (0.2%) (n=445)0.31
Influenza B9 (1.9%)2 (0.4%)1 (1.4%)1 (0.2%)
Admitted to ICU21 (1.0%)227 (12.7%)<0.000122 (7.8%)192 (13.8%)0.006
Died during hospital admission142 (6.4%) (n=2202)482 (26.9%) (n=1789)<0.000147 (16.6%)408 (29.3%) (n=1387)<0.0001
  • Data on co-morbidities represent number with each condition. Where data are missing, total numbers in each category are presented in brackets. P values are calculated using Χ2 for proportions, t-tests for means and Wilcoxon rank sum for medians.

  • CRP, C reactive protein; ICU, intensive care unit; IQR, inter quartile range; NEWS, National Early Warning Score; PCO2, partial pressure of carbon dioxide; PO2, partial pressure of oxygen.