Table 1

Parameter values used in estimating the number of hospitalised patients affected by MROs

VariableEstimate (95% CI)Source
Number of Queensland hospital admissions
per quarter
409 972 (348 476 to 462 243)Queensland Health9
Prevalence of all hospitalisations
with HAI (%)
9.9 (8.8 to 11.0)Russo et al 10
Species of all HAIs* (%)
Staphylococcus aureus 13.8 (10.2 to 17.3)Russo et al 10
Escherichia coli 8.8 (5.9 to 11.7)
Enterococcus faecium 5.8 (3.4 to 8.2)
Klebsiella pneumoniae 4.4 (2.3 to 6.5)
Enterobacter cloacae 1.9 (0.5 to 3.3)
Acinetobacter baumannii 1.1 (0.0 to 2.2)
Multidrug-resistant† (%)
 MRSA14.4 (13.3 to 17.2)Wozniak et al 11
 ESBL E. coli 5.3 (4.5 to 6.5)
 VRE37.8 (26.7 to 49.2)
 ESBL K. pneumoniae 4.1 (3.6 to 7.7)
 CPE4.1 (3.9 to 4.3)Coombs et al 12
 CRAB3.2 (2.7 to 3.7)
Annual change of species incidence
(% points)
 MRSA0.3
 ESBL E. coli 0.9
 VRE−2.8Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care13
 ESBL K. pneumoniae 1.0Coombs et al 12
 CPE0.0
 CRAB0.0
Infection fraction‡ (%)
 MRSA20.6 (18.6 to 22.5)Hospital/clinical data
 ESBL E. coli 30.0 (23.9 to 36.1)
 VRE4.6 (2.9 to 6.3)
 ESBL K. pneumoniae 27.6 (21.1 to 34.0)
 CPE35.9 (20.8 to 51.0)
 CRAB15.2 (4.8 to 25.6)
Cluster frequency§
 MRSA, ESBL E. coli, ESBL K. pneumoniae 0.02
 VRE0.05Sequencing data records
 CPE, CRAB0.06
Decreased cluster size (95% CI)
 MRSA§5.38 (1.37 to 9.38)
 ESBL E. coli§10.25 (2.94 to 17.56)
 VRE8.29 (3.89 to 12.68)Sequencing data records
 ESBL K. pneumoniae 3.25 (1.23 to 5.27)This is the estimated drop in cluster size with WGS use.
 CPE6.33 (−1.20¶ to 13.87)
 CRAB4.00 (−1.88¶ to 9.88)
  • *The HAI percentage of each organism; the denominator is total HAIs.

  • †The denominator is the total number of the organism detected.

  • ‡The fraction of infections to infections plus colonisations.

  • §The probability of a cluster detected from all isolates sequenced for that species.

  • ¶The negative number does not denote an increase in isolates. Two isolates are required to identify the cluster, so this negative value means that no clusters are identified.

  • **

  • CPE, carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales; CRAB, carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii; ESBL, extended spectrum beta-lactamases; HAI, healthcare-associated infection; MRO, multidrug-resistant organism; MRSA, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; VRE, vancomycin-resistant enterococci; WGS, whole-genome sequencing.